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|Emperor of the Roman Empire|
|Coin featuring Galba|
|Reign||8 June 68 – 15 January 69|
|Full name||Servius Sulpicius Galba|
|Born||24 December 3 BC|
|Died||15 January 69 (age 70)|
|Father||Servius Sulpicius Galba|
Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69), also called Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus, was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors.
 Origins and rise to power
He was born as Servius Sulpicius Galba near Terracina, "on the left as you go towards Fundi" in the words of Suetonius.
Through his paternal grandfather ("more eminent for his learning than for his rank — for he did not advance beyond the grade of praetor" and who "published a voluminous and painstaking history", according to Suetonius), who predicted his rise to power (Suetonius, 4), he was descended from Servius Sulpicius Galba. Galba's father attained the consulship, and although he was short, hunchbacked and only an indifferent speaker, was an industrious pleader at the bar. His mother was Mummia Achaica, the granddaughter of Catullus and great-granddaughter of Lucius Mummius Achaicus. They only had one other child, an elder son called Gaius who left Rome after squandering the greater part of his estate, and committed suicide because Tiberius would not allow him to take part in the allotment of the provinces in his year. On his father's remarriage to Livia Ocellina, Galba was adopted by her and took her names, remaining Lucius Livius Ocella until becoming emperor.
He came from a noble family and was a man of great wealth, but was unconnected either by birth or by adoption with the first six Caesars. In his early years he was regarded as a youth of remarkable abilities, and it is said that both Augustus and Tiberius prophesied his future eminence (Tacitus, Annals, vi. 20; Suet. Galba, 4).
He became Praetor in 20, and consul in 33; he earned a reputation in the provinces of Gaul, Germania, Africa and Hispania (Iberia, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) for his military capability, strictness and impartiality. On the death of Caligula, he refused the invitation of his friends to make a bid for the empire, and loyally served Claudius. For the first half of Nero's reign he lived in retirement, till, in 61, the emperor bestowed on him the province of Hispania Tarraconensis.
In the spring of 68, Galba was informed of Nero's intention to put him to death, and of the insurrection of Julius Vindex in Gaul. He was at first inclined to follow the example of Vindex, but the defeat and death of the latter renewed his hesitation. The news that Nymphidius Sabinus, the Praetorian Prefect, had given him his favour revived Galba's spirits. Until now, he had only dared to call himself the legate of the senate and Roman people; after Nero's suicide, he assumed the title of Caesar, and marched straight for Rome.
Following Nero's death, Nymphidius Sabinus sought to seize power prior to the arrival of Galba, but he could not win the loyalty of the Praetorian guard and was killed. Upon Galba's approach to the city in October, he was met by soldiers presenting demands; Galba replied by killing many of them.
 Rule and fall
Galba's primary concern during his brief reign was in restoring state finances, and to this end he undertook a number of unpopular measures, the most dangerous of which was his refusal to pay the praetorians the reward promised in his name. Galba scorned the notion that soldiers should be "bribed" for their loyalty. He further disgusted the mob by his meanness and dislike of pomp and display. His advanced age had destroyed his energy, and he was entirely in the hands of favourites. Three of these — Titus Vinius, who became Galba's colleague as consul, Cornelius Laco, the commander of the Praetorian Guard and Galba's freedman Icelus Marcianus — were said to virtually control the emperor. The three were called "the three pedagogues" because of their influence on Galba. All this made the new emperor gravely unpopular.
On January 1, 69, two legions in Germania Superior refused to swear loyalty to Galba and toppled his statues, demanding that a new emperor be chosen; on the next day, the soldiers of Germania Inferior also rebelled and took the decision of who should be the next emperor into their own hands, proclaiming the governor of the province, Vitellius, as emperor. This outbreak of revolt made Galba aware of his own unpopularity and of the general discontent. In order to check the rising storm, he adopted as his coadjutor and successor L. Calpurnius Piso. The populace regarded the choice of successor as a sign of fear, and the Praetorians were indignant, because the usual donative was not forthcoming.
M. Salvius Otho, formerly governor of Lusitania, and one of Galba's earliest supporters, disappointed at not being chosen instead of Piso, entered into communication with the discontented Praetorians, and was adopted by them as their emperor. Galba, who at once set out to meet the rebels — he was so feeble that he had to be carried in a litter — was met by a troop of cavalry and was butchered near the Lacus Curtius. Piso was killed shortly afterwards. According to Plutarch, during Galba's last moments he offered his neck, and said, "Strike, if it be for the good of the Romans!"
Altogether around 120 people claimed the credit for killing Galba, being anxious to win Otho's favour and hoping to be rewarded. A list of their names was drawn up, which fell into the hands of Vitellius when he succeeded Otho as emperor. Every one of them was executed.
During the later period of his provincial administration Galba was indolent and apathetic, but this was due either to a desire not to attract Nero's favor or to the growing infirmities of age. Tacitus says all would have pronounced him worthy of the empire if he had never been emperor ("omnium consensu capax imperii nisi imperasset").
 External links
 Primary sources
- Galba.net: researching Galba's heritage
- Life of Galba (Suetonius; English translation and Latin original)
- Life of Galba (Plutarch; English translation)
- Cassius Dio, Book 63
 Secondary material
- Galba at RomansOnline
- An Emperor in trouble – Galba’s relationship with the Roman Army
- Biography at De Imperatoribus Romanis
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus
|Consul of the Roman Empire together with Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix|
Paullus Fabius Persicus and Lucius Vitellius
Titus Catius Asconius Silius Italicus and Publius Galerius Trachalus
|Consul of the Roman Empire together with Titus Vinius|
Fabius Valens and Arrius Antoninus
The Works of Plutarch
|The Works||Parallel Lives · The Moralia · Pseudo-Plutarch|
Alcibiades and Coriolanus1 · Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar · Aratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2 · Aristides and Cato the Elder1 · Crassus and Nicias1 · Demetrius and Antony1 · Demosthenes and Cicero1 · Dion and Brutus1 · Fabius and Pericles1 · Lucullus and Cimon1 · Lysander and Sulla1 · Numa and Lycurgus1 · Pelopidas and Marcellus1 · Philopoemen and Flamininus1 · Phocion and Cato the Younger · Pompey and Agesilaus1 · Poplicola and Solon1 · Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius · Romulus and Theseus1 · Sertorius and Eumenes1 · Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1 · Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1 · Themistocles and Camillus
|The Translators||John Dryden · Thomas North · Jacques Amyot · Philemon Holland · Arthur Hugh Clough|
|1 Comparison extant · 2 Four unpaired Lives|
Pax Romana emperors
|Augustus · Tiberius · Caligula · Claudius · Nero · Galba · Otho · Vitellius · Vespasianus · Titus · Domitian · Nerva · Trajan · Hadrian · Antoninus Pius · Lucius Verus · Marcus Aurelius|