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Timeline of Christianity

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The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates. For "Old Testament" chronology, see History of ancient Israel and Judah.

Contents

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[edit] Era of Jesus

See also: Cultural and historical background of Jesus and Chronology of Jesus

The year one is the first year in the Christian calendar (there is no year zero), which is the calendar presently used (in unison with the Gregorian calendar) almost everywhere in the world, because of the current dominance of the Western world. Traditionally, this was held to be the year Jesus was born, however most modern scholars argue for an earlier or later date, the most agreed upon being between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C.

Jesus began his ministry after his baptism by John and during the rule of Pilate, preaching: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" (Matt 4:12-17). While the historicity of the gospel accounts is questioned to some extent by some critical scholars and non-Christians, the traditional view states the following chronology for his ministry: Temptation, Sermon on the Mount, Appointment of the Twelve, Miracles, Temple Money Changers, Last Supper, Arrest, Trial, Passion, Crucifixion on Good Friday (Mark 15:42,John 19:42), Nisan 14th (John 19:14,Mark 14:2,Gospel of Peter) or Nisan 15th (Synoptic Gospels), (7Apr30, 3Apr33, 30Mar36, possible Fri-14-Nisan dates, -Meier), entombment by Pharisees Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus of the Sanhedrin, Resurrection by God on Easter Sunday, appearances to Paul of Tarsus (1Cor 15:3-9), Simon Peter (Luke 24:34), Mary Magdalene (Mark 16:9,John 20:10-18), and others, Great Commission, Ascension, Second Coming Prophecy to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment, and establishment of the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age. See also Chronology of Jesus.

[edit] Era of the Apostles

See also: Apostolic Age, Acts of the Apostles, and Paul of Tarsus

Shortly after the Death (Nisan 14 or 15) and Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus, the Jerusalem church was founded as the first Christian church with about 120 Jews and Jewish Proselytes (Acts 1:15), followed by Pentecost (Sivan 6), the Ananias and Sapphira incident, Pharisee Gamaliel's defense of the Apostles (5:34-39), the stoning of Saint Stephen (see also Persecution of Christians) and the subsequent dispersal of the church (7:54-8:8) which led to the baptism of Simon Magus in Samaria (8:9-24), and also an Ethiopian eunuch (8:26-40). Paul's "Road to Damascus" conversion to "Apostle to the Gentiles" is first recorded in 9:13-16, cf. Gal 1:11-24. Peter baptized the Roman Centurion Cornelius, who is traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Christianity (10). The Antioch church was founded, it was there that the term Christian was first used (11:26).

[edit] Early Christianity

See also: Early Christianity

[edit] Era of the Seven Ecumenical Councils

See also: Ecumenical councils#The first seven Ecumenical Councils and Christendom

Constantine called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 to unify Christology, also called the first great Christian council by Jerome, the first ecumenical, decreed the Original Nicene Creed, but rejected by Nontrinitarians such as Arius, Theonas, Secundus of Ptolemais, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nicaea who were excommunicated, also addressed Easter controversy and passed 20 Canon laws.

[edit] Middle Ages

See also: Middle Ages

[edit] Renaissance

See also: Renaissance

[edit] Reformation

See also: Reformation

[edit] 17th century

See also: Age of Reason

[edit] 18th century

See also: Age of Enlightenment

[edit] 19th century

See also: Industrial Revolution

[edit] 20th century

[edit] 21st century

[edit] Sources

[edit] See also

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."
  2. ^ John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, v. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  3. ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Tiberius 36; Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "The Jewish deputation which petitioned for the deposition of the royal house of the Idumeans was joined by 8,000 Jewish residents of Rome. Several Romans adopted Jewish customs, and some, as the rhetor Cilicius of Kalakte, a friend of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, even embraced Judaism (Müller, "Fragmenta Historicorum Græcorum," iii. 331). The reign of Tiberius (until the removal of his minister Sejanus) was fraught with misfortune for the Jews. When the cult of Isis was driven out of Rome (19 C.E.) the Jews also were expelled, because a Roman lady who inclined toward Judaism had been deceived by Jewish swindlers. The synagogues were closed, the vessels burned, and 4,000 Jewish youths were sent upon military service to Sardinia. After the death of Sejanus (31) the emperor allowed the Jews to return."; H.H. Ben-Sasson's A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 288 notes: "Explicit evidence of a systematic attempt to propagate the Jewish faith in the city of Rome is found as early as 139 BCE. With the increase of the Jewish population of Rome, the Jews intensified their efforts to make converts among the Romans. Although the activity of Jewish missionaries in Roman society caused Tiberius to expel them from that city in 19 CE, they soon returned, and Jewish religious propaganda was resumed and maintained even after the destruction of the Temple. Tacitus mentions it regretfully (Histories 5.5), and Juvenal, in his Fourteenth Satire (11. 96ff.), describes how Roman families 'degenerated' into Judaism: the fathers permitted themselves to adopt some of its customs and the sons became Jews in every respect. ... the Bible provided the apostles of Judaism with a literature unparalleled in any other religion."
  4. ^ G. J. Goldberg. John the Baptist and Josephus. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  5. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254-256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37-41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then — if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment — there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  6. ^ A. J. MAAS (2003). Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ. Retrieved January 23, 2006. Walter Bauer's et al. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 1979, under Christos notes: "as a personal name; the Gentiles must have understood Christos in this way (to them it seemed very much like Chrestos [even in pronunciation ...], a name that is found in lit."
  7. ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius XXV.4; Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "... in 49-50, in consequence of dissensions among them regarding the advent of the Messiah, they were forbidden to hold religious services. The leaders in the controversy, and many others of the Jewish citizens, left the city."
  8. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers see section titled: "THE INCIDENT AT ANTIOCH"
  9. ^ Pauline Chronology: His Life and Missionary Work, from Catholic Resources by Felix Just, S.J.
  10. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Fiscus Iudaicus, Suetonius's Domitian XII: "Besides other taxes, that on the Jews [A tax of two drachmas a head, imposed by Titus in return for free permission to practice their religion; see Josephus, Bell. Jud. 7.6.6] was levied with the utmost rigor, and those were prosecuted who, without publicly acknowledging that faith, yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people [These may have been Christians, whom the Romans commonly assumed were Jews]. I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised."
  11. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Tarfon: "R. Ṭarfon was extremely bitter against those Jews who had been converted to the new faith; and he swore that he would burn every book of theirs which should fall into his hands (Shab. 116a), his feeling being so intense that he had no scruples against destroying the Gospels, although the name of God occurred frequently in them."
  12. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, pages 414-415
  13. ^ The Seventh Arian (or Second Sirmium) Confession Sirmium (357)
  14. ^ Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved Septembe 25, 2006; IMPERATORIS THEODOSIANI CODEX Liber Decimus Sextus, Emperor Theodosius, George Mason University retrieved September 25, 2006; Theodosian Code XVI.1.2; Catholic Encyclopedia: Theodosius I: "In February, 380, he and Gratian published the famous edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the Bishops of Rome and Alexandria (Cod. Theod., XVI, I, 2; Sozomen, VII, 4)."
  15. ^ The Rosicrucian Fellowship: The Rosicrucian Interpretation of Christianity
  16. ^ Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, XXX: Knight Kadosh, p. 822, 1872
  17. ^ René Guénon, El Esoterismo de Dante, p. 5-6, 14, 15-16, 18-23, 1925
  18. ^ Manly Palmer Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages: The Fraternity of The Rose Cross, p. 139, 1928
  19. ^ The Works of Emanuel Swedenborg in Chronological Order

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