BEFORE TRIBULATION | Bondage under Law

FROM THE EXODUS TO THE CROSS: Bondage under the Law of Moses
BEFORE THE CROSS: Bondage under Law
BC: Egypt & Bondage | Sin & Law
BC: Before Christ: Bondage in Egypt
 

These prophecy+history relationships are shown for the purpose of learning the language of Bible prophecy, how it actually communicates. That is to say, when the Bible predicts "this" in prophecy we can expect to see "this" in history. By studying how the Bible's prophecies were fulfilled in Bible histories we can get a feel for how the language of Bible prophecy is expected to be understood.

420BC-27AD Intertestamental Period (about 450 years)

PRELUDE TO THE MINISTRY OF JESUS
Intertestamental Period
from the ministry of Malachi (about 420 BC)
to the ministry of John the Baptist (about 27 AD)
about 450 years
God "silent" in the latter portion thereof

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intertestamental_period

The intertestamental period is a term used to refer to a period of time between the writings of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament texts. Traditionally, it is considered to be a roughly four hundred year period, spanning the ministry of Malachi (c. 420 BC), the last of the Old Testament prophets, and the appearance of John the Baptist in the early 1st century AD, almost the same period as the Second Temple period.

Several of the deuterocanonical books, accepted as Scripture by Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, were written during this time, so it is sometimes also referred to as the deuterocanonical period.

4BC-28AD John the Baptist

.

27-28AD "I will send you the prophet Elijah"

4BC-30AD: John the Baptist = the Elijah who was to come

PROPHECY (Promise)
Malachi about 450 BC
Isaiah about 740-680 BC
HISTORY (Fulfillment)
about 28-29 AD

Malachi 4:1-6
"Surely the day is coming; it will burn like a furnace. All the arrogant and every evildoer will be stubble, and that day that is coming will set them on fire," says the Lord Almighty. "Not a root or a branch will be left to them. 2 But for you who revere my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings. And you will go out and leap like calves released from the stall. 3 Then you will trample down the wicked; they will be ashes under the soles of your feet on the day when I do these things," says the Lord Almighty.
4 "Remember the law of my servant Moses, the decrees and laws I gave him at Horeb for all Israel.
5 "See, I will send you the prophet Elijah before that great and dreadful day of the Lord comes. 6 He will turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers; or else I will come and strike the land with a curse."
NIV

2 Kings 1:7-8
The king asked them, "What kind of man was it who came to meet you and told you this?"
8 They replied, "He was a man with a garment of hair and with a leather belt around his waist."
The king said, "That was Elijah
the Tishbite."
NIV

Isaiah 40:3-5
A voice of one calling:
"In the desert prepare
the way for the Lord; make straight in the wilderness
a highway for our God.

4 Every valley shall be raised up,
every mountain and hill made low;
the rough ground shall become level,
the rugged places a plain.
5 And the glory of the Lord will be revealed,
and all mankind together will see it.
For the mouth of the Lord has spoken."
NIV

Malachi 3:1-7
"See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Then suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come to his temple; the messenger of the covenant, whom you desire, will come," says the Lord Almighty.
2 But who can endure the day of his coming? Who can stand when he appears? For he will be like a refiner's fire or a launderer's soap. 3 He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; he will purify the Levites and refine them like gold and silver. Then the Lord will have men who will bring offerings in righteousness, 4 and the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem will be acceptable to the Lord, as in days gone by, as in former years.
5 "So I will come near to you for judgment. I will be quick to testify against sorcerers, adulterers and perjurers, against those who defraud laborers of their wages, who oppress the widows and the fatherless, and deprive aliens of justice, but do not fear me," says the Lord Almighty.
6 "I the Lord do not change. So you, O descendants of Jacob, are not destroyed. 7 Ever since the time of your forefathers you have turned away from my decrees and have not kept them. Return to me, and I will return to you," says the Lord Almighty.
NIV

Luke 1:5-25
In the time of Herod king of Judea there was a priest named Zechariah, who belonged to the priestly division of Abijah; his wife Elizabeth was also a descendant of Aaron. 6 Both of them were upright in the sight of God, observing all the Lord's commandments and regulations blamelessly. 7 But they had no children, because Elizabeth was barren; and they were both well along in years.
8 Once when Zechariah's division was on duty and he was serving as priest before God, 9 he was chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to go into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 10 And when the time for the burning of incense came, all the assembled worshipers were praying outside.
11 Then an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing at the right side of the altar of incense. 12 When Zechariah saw him, he was startled and was gripped with fear. 13 But the angel said to him: "Do not be afraid, Zechariah; your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you are to give him the name John. 14 He will be a joy and delight to you, and many will rejoice because of his birth, 15 for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He is never to take wine or other fermented drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit even from birth. 16 Many of the people of Israel will he bring back to the Lord their God. 17 And he will go on before the Lord, in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to their children and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous — to make ready a people prepared for the Lord."
18 Zechariah asked the angel, "How can I be sure of this? I am an old man and my wife is well along in years."
19 The angel answered, "I am Gabriel. I stand in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to tell you this good news. 20 And now you will be silent and not able to speak until the day this happens, because you did not believe my words, which will come true at their proper time."
21 Meanwhile, the people were waiting for Zechariah and wondering why he stayed so long in the temple. 22 When he came out, he could not speak to them. They realized he had seen a vision in the temple, for he kept making signs to them but remained unable to speak.
23 When his time of service was completed, he returned home. 24 After this his wife Elizabeth became pregnant and for five months remained in seclusion. 25 "The Lord has done this for me," she said. "In these days he has shown his favor and taken away my disgrace among the people."
NIV

Matthew 3:1-15
In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the Desert of Judea 2 and saying, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near." 3 This is he who was spoken of through the prophet Isaiah:
"A voice of one calling in the desert, 'Prepare the way for the Lord,make straight paths for him.'"
4
John's clothes were made of camel's hair, and he had a leather belt around his waist.
His food was locusts and wild honey. 5 People went out to him from Jerusalem and all Judea and the whole region of the Jordan. 6 Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River.
7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to where he was baptizing, he said to them: "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? 8 Produce fruit in keeping with repentance. 9 And do not think you can say to yourselves, 'We have Abraham as our father.' I tell you that out of these stones God can raise up children for Abraham. 10 The ax is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire.
11 "I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. 12 His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor, gathering his wheat into the barn and burning up the chaff with unquenchable fire."
13 Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John. 14 But John tried to deter him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?"
15 Jesus replied, "Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness." Then John consented.
NIV

Matthew 11:7-15
As John's disciples were leaving, Jesus began to speak to the crowd about John: "What did you go out into the desert to see? A reed swayed by the wind? 8 If not, what did you go out to see? A man dressed in fine clothes? No, those who wear fine clothes are in kings' palaces. 9 Then what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet. 10 This is the one about whom it is written:

"'I will send my messenger ahead of you,
who will prepare your way before you.
'

11 I tell you the truth: Among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist; yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 12 From the days of John the Baptist until now, the kingdom of heaven has been forcefully advancing, and forceful men lay hold of it. 13 For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John. 14 And if you are willing to accept it, he is the Elijah who was to come. 15 He who has ears, let him hear.
NIV

Matthew 17:10-13
The disciples asked him, "Why then do the teachers of the law say that Elijah must come first?"
11 Jesus replied, "To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. 12 But I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands." 13 Then the disciples understood that he was talking to them about John the Baptist.
NIV

 

THE SPIRIT AND POWER OF ELIJAH & JOHN THE BAPTIST
Luke 1:17
And he shall go before him in the spirit and POWER, ("DUNAMIS" #1411), of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
 
Elijah & John the Baptist have this in common: they both took on their faithless nation, calling them from the most heinous rebellion, singlehandedly. This required unusual faith. They both were granted the Spiritual Gift of Faith (1 Cor 12:9) which lasts for the situation needed, but the man is left afterward with his own regular faith. This Gift of Faith enabled Elijah to single-handedly confront the 450 prophets of Baal in 1 Kings 18:22-45. But immediately following, his own faith was not enough to stand up to a lone woman named Jezebel: Elijah ran from her for his life (1 Kings 19:1-3). Likewise, John the Baptist was granted the Gift of Faith to single-handedly stand against the broods of vipers of Pharisees & Sadducees and single-handedly identifying boldly to the world that Jesus is the Son of God, the Christ, the Lamb of God (Matthew 3:1-16 and John 2:15-32). But later, when this Gift of Faith had served its purpose, John the Baptist had to send messengers to find out if Jesus was, in fact, the One who was to come (Luke 7:20). John the Baptist did no miracles (John 10:41), but Elijah did (1 Kings 17:1 and 1 Kings 17:13-22 and 1 Kings 18:1 and 1 Kings 18:41-45 and 1 Kings 19:7 and 2 Kings 1:10-16 and 2 Kings 2:7-11). The spirit and POWER, ("DUNAMIS" #1411), of Elijah which John the Baptist shared was the spiritual Gift of Faith (1 Cor 12:9) which gave them temporary, supernatural Faith to withstand far more than they could have on their own faith.
 
1 Corinthians 12:7-9
7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.
8 For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit;
9 To another faith by the same Spirit; ...
"To another," indicates here, as in the rest of the passage, that it is a special Gift that is not given to everyone all the time. It is the spiritual Gift of [Special] Faith temporarily, miraculously added to one's personal faith.

 

27-28AD "A voice of one calling in the desert"

PROPHECY
about 740-680 BC
HISTORY
about 28-29AD

Isaiah 40:1-11
Comfort, comfort my people, says your God. 2 Speak tenderly to Jerusalem, and proclaim to her that her hard service has been completed, that her sin has been paid for, that she has received from the Lord's hand double for all her sins. 3 A voice of one calling: "In the desert prepare the way for the Lord; make straight in the wilderness a highway for our God. 4 Every valley shall be raised up, every mountain and hill made low; the rough ground shall become level, the rugged places a plain. 5 And the glory of the Lord will be revealed, and all mankind together will see it. For the mouth of the Lord has spoken." 6 A voice says, "Cry out." And I said, "What shall I cry?" "All men are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field. 7 The grass withers and the flowers fall, because the breath of the Lord blows on them. Surely the people are grass. 8 The grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of our God stands forever." 9 You who bring good tidings to Zion, go up on a high mountain. You who bring good tidings to Jerusalem, lift up your voice with a shout, lift it up, do not be afraid; say to the towns of Judah, "Here is your God!" 10 See, the Sovereign Lord comes with power, and his arm rules for him. See, his reward is with him, and his recompense accompanies him. 11 He tends his flock like a shepherd: ...
NIV

Matthew 3:1-17
In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the Desert of Judea 2 and saying, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near." 3 This is he who was spoken of through the prophet Isaiah:  "A voice of one calling in the desert, 'Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.'"  4 John's clothes were made of camel's hair, and he had a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 5 People went out to him from Jerusalem and all Judea and the whole region of the Jordan. 6 Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River. 7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to where he was baptizing, he said to them: "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? 8 Produce fruit in keeping with repentance. 9 And do not think you can say to yourselves, 'We have Abraham as our father.' I tell you that out of these stones God can raise up children for Abraham. 10 The ax is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire.11 "I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. 12 His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor, gathering his wheat into the barn and burning up the chaff with unquenchable fire." 13 Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John. 14 But John tried to deter him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?" 15 Jesus replied, "Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness." Then John consented. 16 As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. 17 And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased."
NIV
   

 

27-28AD "I will send my messenger ahead of you"

PROPHECY
about 450 BC
HISTORY
about 28-29 AD

Malachi 3:1-7
"See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Then suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come to his temple; the messenger of the covenant, whom you desire, will come," says the Lord Almighty. 2 But who can endure the day of his coming? Who can stand when he appears? For he will be like a refiner's fire or a launderer's soap. 3 He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; he will purify the Levites and refine them like gold and silver. Then the Lord will have men who will bring offerings in righteousness, 4 and the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem will be acceptable to the Lord, as in days gone by, as in former years. 5 "So I will come near to you for judgment. I will be quick to testify against sorcerers, adulterers and perjurers, against those who defraud laborers of their wages, who oppress the widows and the fatherless, and deprive aliens of justice, but do not fear me," says the Lord Almighty. 6 "I the Lord do not change. So you, O descendants of Jacob, are not destroyed. 7 Ever since the time of your forefathers you have turned away from my decrees and have not kept them. Return to me, and I will return to you," says the Lord Almighty.
NIV

Matthew 11:7-15
As John's disciples were leaving, Jesus began to speak to the crowd about John: "What did you go out into the desert to see? A reed swayed by the wind? 8 If not, what did you go out to see? A man dressed in fine clothes? No, those who wear fine clothes are in kings' palaces. 9 Then what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet. 10 This is the one about whom it is written: "'I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way before you.' 11 I tell you the truth: Among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist; yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 12 From the days of John the Baptist until now, the kingdom of heaven has been forcefully advancing, and forceful men lay hold of it. 13 For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John. 14 And if you are willing to accept it, he is the Elijah who was to come. 15 He who has ears, let him hear.
NIV

   

 

4BC-30AD Jesus the Christ

Matthew 5:17-19 (about 28AD, at the beginning of Jesus' public ministry)
"Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. 18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished."
NIV

 

John 19:28-30 (around 30AD, at the ending of Jesus' public ministry)
After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished (#5055), that the scripture might be fulfilled (#5048), saith, "I thirst!" 29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. 30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, "It is finished!" (#5055): and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.
NIV

 

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4BC "The virgin will be with child"

 

Prophecy
about 740-680 BC
History
about 4 BC
Isaiah 7:13-17
Then Isaiah said, "Hear now, you house of David! Is it not enough to try the patience of men? Will you try the patience of my God also? 14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel [Hebrew "God with us"].  15 He will eat curds and honey when he knows enough to reject the wrong and choose the right. 16 But before the boy knows enough to reject the wrong and choose the right, the land of the two kings you dread will be laid waste.
NIV
Matthew 1:18-25
This is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit. 19 Because Joseph her husband was a righteous man and did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. 20 But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins." 22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel"—which means, "God with us." 24 When Joseph woke up, he did what the angel of the Lord had commanded him and took Mary home as his wife. 25 But he had no union with her until she gave birth to a son. And he gave him the name Jesus.
NIV
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

4BC "Rachel weeping for her children"

PROPHECY
about 686 BC to 586 BC
HISTORY
about 4 BC
Jeremiah 31:15
This is what the Lord says:  A voice is heard in Ramah, mourning and great weeping, Rachel weeping for her children and refusing to be comforted, because her children are no more."
NIV
Matthew 2:16-18
When Herod realized that he had been outwitted by the Magi, he was furious, and he gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were two years old and under, in accordance with the time he had learned from the Magi. 17 Then what was said through the prophet Jeremiah was fulfilled:  18 "A voice is heard in Ramah, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children and refusing to be comforted, because they are no more."
NIV
 

 

4BC "Out of Egypt I called My Son"

PROPHECY
about 743 BC
HISTORY
about 4 BC
Hosea 11:1b
Out of Egypt I called my son.
NIV
Matthew 2:13-15
An angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. "Get up," he said, "take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him."  14 So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, 15 where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: "Out of Egypt I called my son."
NIV
   

 

2BC "He shall be called a Nazarene"

PROPHECY
unknown
HISTORY
about 2 BC
  Matthew 2:19-23
After Herod died, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt 20 and said, "Get up, take the child and his mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who were trying to take the child's life are dead."  21 So he got up, took the child and his mother and went to the land of Israel. 22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning in Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. Having been warned in a dream, he withdrew to the district of Galilee, 23 and he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene."
NIV
   

 

28AD "The people living in darkness have seen a great light"

PROPHECY
about 740-680 BC
HISTORY
about 28 AD

Isaiah 9:1-7
In the past he humbled the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the future he will honor Galilee of the Gentiles, by the way of the sea, along the Jordan — 2 The people walking in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned. 3 You have enlarged the nation and increased their joy; they rejoice before you as people rejoice at the harvest, as men rejoice when dividing the plunder. 4 For as in the day of Midian's defeat, you have shattered the yoke that burdens them, the bar across their shoulders, the rod of their oppressor. 5 Every warrior's boot used in battle and every garment rolled in blood will be destined for burning, will be fuel for the fire. 6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. 7 Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end. He will reign on David's throne and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever. The zeal of the Lord Almighty will accomplish this.
NIV

Matthew 4:12-5:3-...
When Jesus heard that John had been put in prison, he returned to Galilee. 13 Leaving Nazareth, he went and lived in Capernaum, which was by the lake in the area of Zebulun and Naphtali— 14 to fulfill what was said through the prophet Isaiah: 15 "Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali, the way to the sea, along the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles— 16 the people living in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned."17 From that time on Jesus began to preach, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near."
18 As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen. 19 "Come, follow me," Jesus said, "and I will make you fishers of men."  20 At once they left their nets and followed him. 21 Going on from there, he saw two other brothers, James son of Zebedee and his brother John. They were in a boat with their father Zebedee, preparing their nets. Jesus called them, 22 and immediately they left the boat and their father and followed him. 23 Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and sickness among the people. 24 News about him spread all over Syria, and people brought to him all who were ill with various diseases, those suffering severe pain, the demon-possessed, those having seizures, and the paralyzed, and he healed them. 25 Large crowds from Galilee, the Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and the region across the Jordan followed him.
5:1-3 Now when he saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, 2 and he began to teach them, saying:  3 "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. ...
NIV

   

 

28AD "He took up our infirmities and carried our diseases"

PROPHECY
about 740-680 BC
HISTORY
about 28AD
Isaiah 53:1-12
Who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? 2 He grew up before him like a tender shoot, and like a root out of dry ground. He had no beauty or majesty to attract us to him, nothing in his appearance that we should desire him. 3 He was despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows, and familiar with suffering. Like one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not. 4 Surely he took up our infirmities and carried our sorrows, yet we considered him stricken by God, smitten by him, and afflicted. 5 But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed. 6 We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. 7 He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth. 8 By oppression and judgment he was taken away. And who can speak of his descendants? For he was cut off from the land of the living; for the transgression of my people he was stricken. 9 He was assigned a grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death, though he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth. 10 Yet it was the Lord's will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and though the Lord makes his life a guilt offering, he will see his offspring and prolong his days, and the will of the Lord will prosper in his hand.11 After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light [of life] and be satisfied;by his knowledge my righteous servant will justify many, and he will bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong, because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
NIV
 
Matthew 8:1-17
When he came down from the mountainside, large crowds followed him. 2 A man with leprosy came and knelt before him and said, "Lord, if you are willing, you can make me clean."3 Jesus reached out his hand and touched the man. "I am willing," he said. "Be clean!" Immediately he was cured of his leprosy. 4 Then Jesus said to him, "See that you don't tell anyone. But go, show yourself to the priest and offer the gift Moses commanded, as a testimony to them."5 When Jesus had entered Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking for help. 6 "Lord," he said, "my servant lies at home paralyzed and in terrible suffering." 7 Jesus said to him, "I will go and heal him." 8 The centurion replied, "Lord, I do not deserve to have you come under my roof. But just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 9 For I myself am a man under authority, with soldiers under me. I tell this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and that one, 'Come,' and he comes. I say to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it." 10 When Jesus heard this, he was astonished and said to those following him, "I tell you the truth, I have not found anyone in Israel with such great faith. 11 I say to you that many will come from the east and the west, and will take their places at the feast with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. 12 But the subjects of the kingdom will be thrown outside, into the darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." 13 Then Jesus said to the centurion, "Go! It will be done just as you believed it would." And his servant was healed at that very hour. 14 When Jesus came into Peter's house, he saw Peter's mother-in-law lying in bed with a fever. 15 He touched her hand and the fever left her, and she got up and began to wait on him. 16 When evening came, many who were demon-possessed were brought to him, and he drove out the spirits with a word and healed all the sick. 17 This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah:  "He took up our infirmities and carried our diseases."
NIV
   

 

28AD "A man's enemies will be the members of his own household"

PROPHECY
about 722-701BC
HISTORY
about 28AD
Micah 7:4-7
The day of your watchmen has come, the day God visits you. Now is the time of their confusion. 5 Do not trust a neighbor; put no confidence in a friend. Even with her who lies in your embrace be careful of your words. 6 For a son dishonors his father, a daughter rises up against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law — a man's enemies are the members of his own household. 7:1 But as for me, I watch in hope for the Lord, I wait for God my Savior; my God will hear me.
NIV

Matthew 10:16-42
I am sending you out like sheep among wolves. Therefore be as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves. 17 "Be on your guard against men; they will hand you over to the local councils and flog you in their synagogues. 18 On my account you will be brought before governors and kings as witnesses to them and to the Gentiles. 19 But when they arrest you, do not worry about what to say or how to say it. At that time you will be given what to say, 20 for it will not be you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. 21 Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child; children will rebel against their parents and have them put to death. 22 All men will hate you because of me, but he who stands firm to the end will be saved. 23 When you are persecuted in one place, flee to another. I tell you the truth, you will not finish going through the cities of Israel before the Son of Man comes. 24 "A student is not above his teacher, nor a servant above his master. 25 It is enough for the student to be like his teacher, and the servant like his master. If the head of the house has been called Beelzebub, how much more the members of his household!  26 "So do not be afraid of them. There is nothing concealed that will not be disclosed, or hidden that will not be made known. 27 What I tell you in the dark, speak in the daylight; what is whispered in your ear, proclaim from the roofs. 28 Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in hell. 29 Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from the will of your Father. 30 And even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31 So don't be afraid; you are worth more than many sparrows. 36 "Whoever acknowledges me before men, I will also acknowledge him before my Father in heaven. 33 But whoever disowns me before men, I will disown him before my Father in heaven. 34 "Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. 35 For I have come to turn "'a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law— 36 a man's enemies will be the members of his own household.' 37 "Anyone who loves his father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; anyone who loves his son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me; 38 and anyone who does not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of me. 39 Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it. 40 "He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives the one who sent me. 41 Anyone who receives a prophet because he is a prophet will receive a prophet's reward, and anyone who receives a righteous man because he is a righteous man will receive a righteous man's reward. 42 And if anyone gives even a cup of cold water to one of these little ones because he is my disciple, I tell you the truth, he will certainly not lose his reward."
NIV

   

 

28AD "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me"

PROPHECY
about 740-680 BC
HISTORY
about 28AD
Isaiah 61:1-61:9
The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, 2 to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn, 3 and provide for those who grieve in Zion — to bestow on them a crown of beauty instead of ashes, the oil of gladness instead of mourning, and a garment of praise instead of a spirit of despair. They will be called oaks of righteousness, a planting of the Lord for the display of his splendor. 4 They will rebuild the ancient ruins and restore the places long devastated; they will renew the ruined cities that have been devastated for generations. 5 Aliens will shepherd your flocks; foreigners will work your fields and vineyards. 6 And you will be called priests of the Lord, you will be named ministers of our God. You will feed on the wealth of nations, and in their riches you will boast. 7 Instead of their shame my people will receive a double portion, and instead of disgrace they will rejoice in their inheritance; and so they will inherit a double portion in their land, and everlasting joy will be theirs.8 "For I, the Lord, love justice; I hate robbery and iniquity. In my faithfulness I will reward them and make an  everlasting covenant with them. 9 Their descendants will be known among the nations and their offspring among the peoples. All who see them will acknowledge that they are a people the Lord has blessed."
NIV
Luke 4:14-22
Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him spread through the whole countryside. 15 He taught in their synagogues, and everyone praised him. 16 He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. And he stood up to read. 17 The scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written:18 "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, 19 to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor." 20 Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on him, 21 and he began by saying to them, "Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing." 22 All spoke well of him and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his lips.
NIV
  Matthew 11:1-6
After Jesus had finished instructing his twelve disciples, he went on from there to teach and preach in the towns of Galilee. 2 When John heard in prison what Christ was doing, he sent his disciples 3 to ask him, "Are you the one who was to come, or should we expect someone else?"4 Jesus replied, "Go back and report to John what you hear and see: 5 The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cured, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is preached to the poor. 6 Blessed is the man who does not fall away on account of me."
NIV

 

The Gospel of Augustus Caesar

Note how the Caesars were represented as divine, as (false) messiahs, following the example of Augustus, sitting in the place of God, claiming to be God.

 

From:   http://www.masseiana.org/priene.htm    and    https://web.archive.org/web/20170722070724/http://www.masseiana.org/priene.htm

THE PRIENE INSCRIPTION
OR CALENDAR INSCRIPTION OF PRIENE

(EXTRACTED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES)

The importance of this inscription (dating from around 9 BC) is that it is seen as a precursor to Christ's nativity and his role as a Saviour, just as Augustus, who is celebrated in this text was seen as a Saviour of his people, and that with his arrival into this world all trouble and strife would come to an end. Therefore, Fabius Maximus (see a copy of the letter below) ordained that the 23rd September should be commemorated, not just as the birth of Augustus, but also as a new Era.

It is generally known as the Priene text for it was found on two stones in the market-place in the old town of Priene, Turkey (or more correctly, Asia Minor), and suggests that the existence of messianic prophecy was widespread in the Graeco-Roman world around this time. This, and other messianic inscriptions found in Asia Minor, have been seized upon by Christians as an adumbration of the messianic fulfilment that would follow with the birth of Christ (as is also expected in his parousia), and his role as Saviour exactly duplicates the notion this text embodies. Massey, of course, sees it another way; as yet another example of the original type, i.e. the Repa (or coming prince) finding its expression in the same terms in this text, as it had been since antiquity, and that this office of the Messiah was carried through to the Caesar, and lastly to the Christ.

I include here various extracts from a variety of sources. Unfortunately, the first appearance of this inscription in a published format by Mommsen and Wilamowitz-Mollendorff (in the Mittheilungen des Deutschen archaeologischen Institutes in Athen, 1899, vol. 24) does not appear to be available, and I have been unable to locate a copy online. I do, however, include a full copy of the text from Dittenberger's work (published slightly later in 1905 when Massey was working on the last chapters of AE, and may therefore have been his source), with annotations on the text, and also some commentaries from other writers. I have not, as yet, been able to locate an English translation which parallels Massey's wording exactly as it appears in AE 2:760. I suspect that he may have translated the original text himself, and therefore I have included alternatives, if not all of the lines, then at least the relevant ones towards the end.

The letter mentioned above from Fabius Maximus to the Provincial Assembly, recommending the lunar year being changed to the Julian calendar, commencing on the 23rd September, is as follows:

"Decree of the Greek Assembly in the province of Asia, on motion of the High Priest Apolionios, son of Menophilos, of Aizanoi whereas Providence that orders all our lives has in her display of concern and generosity in our behalf adorned our lives with the highest good: Augustus, whom she has filled with arete [virtue] for the benefit of humanity, and has in her beneficence granted us and those who will come after us [a Saviour (σωτῆρα)] who has made war to cease and who shall put everything [in peaceful] order; and whereas Caesar, [when he was manifest], transcended the expectations of [all who had anticipated the good news], not only by surpassing the benefits conferred by his predecessors but by leaving no expectation of surpassing him to those who would come after him, with the result that the birthday of our God (τοῦ θεοῦ) signalled (ἦρξεν δὲ τῶι κὀσμωι τῶι δι᾽ αὐτὸν εὐαγγελίων ἡ γενέυλιος ἡμέρα τοῦ θεοῦ) the beginning of Good News for the world because of him; ..... (proconsul Paul Fabius Maximus) has discovered a way to honour Augustus that was hitherto unknown among the Greeks, namely to reckon time from the date of his nativity; therefore, with the blessings of Good Fortune and for their own welfare, the Greeks in Asia Decreed that the New Year begin for all the cities on September 23, which is the birthday of Augustus; and, to ensure that the dates coincide in every city, all documents are to carry both the Roman and the Greek date, and the first month shall, in accordance with the decree, be observed as the Month of Caesar, beginning with 23 September, the birthday of Caesar."1

This provoked the reply (in stone) which is commonly referred to as the Priene calendar inscription:

TWO PHOTOS OF PART OF THE INSCRIPTION

[Extracted from A. Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East (1911), p. 390.]

Fig.59
Fig.60
Figures 59 & 60 above, showing parts of the inscription, lines 1-60, out of a total of 84.

The parallelism exists not only with sacred titles, it goes further. Two examples are now forthcoming to prove that the word εὐαγέλλιον, "gospel, good tidings," which was in use in pre-Christian times in the profane sense of good news, and which then became a Primitive Christian cult-word of the first order, was also employed in sacral use in the Imperial cult. One of the examples is that calendar inscription of Priene, about 9 B.C., which we have mentioned twice already, and which is now in the Berlin Museum. Discovered by German archaeologists on two stones of different kinds in the north hall of the market-place at Priene, and published for the first time by Theodor Mommsen and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff with other allied texts and a commentary, this inscription, designed to introduce the Asian calendar, has already been appreciated by Adolf Harnack and Paul Wendland as of great importance in the history of the sacred language of Asia Minor. Harnack translated the most important parts into German. H. Winnefeld kindly obtained for me a photograph of lines 1-60, from which, with the consent of the Directors of the Royal Museums, our Figures 59 and 60 have been made, their size being less than one-quarter of the original. As far as I know these are the first facsimiles to be published of these important texts. Here we find (line 40 f, Figure 60) this remarkable sentence referring to the birthday of the Emperor Augustus—'But the birthday of the god was for the world the beginning of tidings of joy on his account.' (The whole inscription consists of 84 lines.)


THE GREEK TEXT
WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES (IN LATIN)

[Extracted from W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graecae Inscriptiones Selectae, Supplementum Sylloges inscriptionum graecarum, (Leipzig, 1905), vol. 2, pp. 48-60.]

458 Exemplarium quae lapidibus incidi iubentur v. 64 sqq. quattuor aetatem tulerunt, Prienense (P), Apamense (A), Eumeniense (E), Dorylaiense (D). Integri lapides omnes superiore loco Latinum titulum habebant, cuius pars servata est in tabula Apamensi, pars in Dorylaiensi, quae nihil ex Graecis habet. Deinde sequebantnr Graeca, quae in P praeter initium paene integra, in A magna certe ex parte exstant, cum in E nihil nisi v. 55 [Greek]— V. 67 [Greek] aetatem tulerit.—A Graeca per quattuor columnas disposita exhibet; partem huius exempli post Arundellium et Hamiltonimi ed. J. Franz C. I. G. 3957, reliqua addiderunt V. Berard Bull. de corr. Hell. XVH (1893) p. 345 n. 9 et Th. Mommsen Mitth. des arch. Inst in Athen XVI (1894) p. 282. Novissime J. G. C. Anderson lapidem denuo accuratissime examinavit et exemplum emendatius proposuit Mitth. des arch. Inst. XXV (1900) p. 111. E ed. Hamilton Researches in Asia minor n. 367 (J. Franz C. I. G. 3902 b). P effossam Prienae in foro, ubi appositum erat pilae porticus septentrionalis. Exscripserunt Schrader et von Prott. Omnia coniuncta ediderunt et enarraverunt Th. Mommsen et U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorff Mitth. des arch. Inst. in Athen XXIV (1899) p. 275 sqq. inde repetuntur Revue archeologique Troisieme ser. XXXVII 1900 p. 357 n. 76. Editores in versuum dispositione exemplum Prienense omnium integerrimum secuti ea modo quae in nullo ex lapidibus exstant uncis incluserunt, quod institutum ipse quoque tenui.












NOTES

Fonnas litteraram non omnes easdem exhibent editores. Cam ΞΠΣ abique recurrant. fluctuatar inter itemque inter A et A. Ex parte haec discrimina lapidam, quippe qui quattaor diversis locis alii ab aliis lapicidis elaborati sint, esse non improbabile est, sed alia editoram, antiquioram maxime, incariae accepta ferri videntar.

1 Tria anasqaisqae lapis instramenta Graeca continebat: I. Paulli Fabii Maximi proconsalis Asiae epistalam ad commane civitatium Graecarum, qua suadet ut Augusti Caesaris diem natalem initiam anni civilis habeant fastosque saos ad exemplam anni Iuliani Romanorum commatent. V. 1—30. II. Decretam civitatiam Graecarum Asiae, qua huic Paulli Fabii consilio obsequantur. V. 30—77. III. Alterum earandem decretum de comitiis magistratuum in singolis civitatibus tam mature habeadis, at illi die natali Augusti inire possint, v. 78—81. Praeter baec epistulam Fabii etiam Latine scriptam in eisdem lapidibus incisam faisse, ut v. 30 praecipitur, docamento sant fragmenta exemplorum Dorylaiensis et Apamensis, quae sais locis singillatim afferam. Cf. not. 9. 40. 16. 23. In exemplo Apamensi Graecis, quae per septem columnas quas dicunt disposita sunt, uno versa per totum lapidis latitadinem transcarrente argomenti index praemittitur, ex quo nanc nihil exstat nisi --- [Greek]. De tempore quo haec omnia acta sint fere a. 9 a. Chr. n. cf. quae exposat not. 31. 50.

2 In fragmentis Apameae repertis hoc enuntiatum Latino sermone est: incundior an salubrior natalis principis nost[ri]. M.

3 ΤΗΙ non modo in P, sed etiam in A (non ΤΗΝ) esse nunc Andersoni testimonio constat. Deinde vero [Greek] A, [Greek] P.

4 Sic A, [Greek] P.

5 Hoc totidem litteris in lapide A esse testatur Anderson, cum in P litterae quarta et sexta interciderint.

6 [Greek] A [Greek] P.

7 [Greek] A [Greek] P.

8 [Greek] Mommsen-Wilamowitz ex Schraderi Prottiique apographo; neque est cur dubitetur, quin diphthongus ΑΥ in lapide P sit. Neque vero personale [Greek], sed reflexivum [Greek] hoc esse voluisse scriptorem tituli ex A apparet, ubi ΑΤΩΙ esse Andersoni testimonio constat. Nam hanc diphthongi mutationem, frequentissimam illam quidem Augusti aetate, in reflexivum modo pronomen cadere constat. Cf. J. Wackernagel, Ztschr. f. vergl. Sprachw. XXXIII p. 4 sqq. E. Schweizer Gramm. der pergam. Inschriften p. 91 sq. Meisterhans-Schwyzer Gramm. der att. Inschr. ed. 3 p. 61 not. 516. p. 154 not. 1318.

9 In lapide Dorylaiensi exstat pars haud exigua litterarum Latinarum huic Graeci exempli loco respondens, quam mutilatam neque accurate exscriptam Mommsenus sic restituit: [propterea recte homines existimant hoc sibi principium | vitae,] quod paenitendi fuerit natos se esse [fi]nis | cumque non ullo ex die feliciora et privatim singulis et uni versis puhliee trahi possint aus[pici]a quam ex eo, quem felicissi\mum communiter [credunt,] fere autem omnium | in Asia civitatium idem | tempus anni novi initiumque magistratuum sit, | in quod [fort]ui|to, videlicet ut honoraretur, principis nostri natalis incidit, vel | quia tot erga divina merita gratum esse difficile est nisi omnis | pietatis temptetur materia, vel quia [dies est] pro[p]ria [cui]que | laetitia ingressui honoris [st]atu[t]m, publieum videtur m[ihi---].

10 Verba cumque non ulla ex die feliciora et privatim singulis et universis publice etiam in Apamensibus epistulae Latinae reliquiis exstant. Cf. not. 9.

11 Articulum omisit A, habet P.

12 Sic integra haec esse in A testatur Anderson. [Greek] P. De η, pro εί cf. not. 17.

13 Quod anni civilis initium, quale iam tum observabatur in Asia, fere in ipsum diem natalem Caesaris Augusti incidebat, id ad divinae providentiae consilium, quo ipse quem Paullus proposuit novus fastorum ordo praemonstratus sit, refertur. Utebantur autem tum Asiae civitates anni ordine a Macedonibus per omnem fere orientem propagato, qui annus iunisolaris initium capiebat ab aequinoctio auctumnali paucis modo diebus ab Augusti die natali distante. Memorabile vero est, divinae voluntatis mentionem ([Greek]) ab interprete Graeco demum in haec verba illatam esse, cum Latinae epistulae tenor (not. 9) adverbium fortuito habeat.

14 [Greek] Mommsen Wilamowitz ex P. Sed cum Andersonus testetur in A potius ΝΘΡΩΠΟΙΤ esse, apparet [Greek] scribendum esse. Nam etsi per se Apamensis exemplaris non maior auctoritas est quam Prienensis, tamen neque articulo careri potest neque [Greek]; aptum est sententiae, quia haec enuntiati condicionalis forma sumptionem rei fictae significat; quod contra optativus potentialis [Greek]—[Greek] optime hic se habet.

15 Sic supplendum fuit propter ea quae exposui not. 14 [Greek] Mommsen Wilamowitz.

16 In exemplaris Apamensis parte Latina haec agnoscuntur: quem Oraeei sico nomine diem nean numenian appellant eum elarissimi viri Gaesaris. Mommsenus monuit, neque de reliquo praeter ipsum anni initium ordine fastorum mutando neque de oinnium mensium initiis in ante diem nonum calendas constituendis in epistula quicquam legi, quas res tamen decreto provinciae contineri. Sed illa in litteris epistulae proconsulis annexis fuisse, quarum frustulum exstaret in lapide Apamensi (not. 23), cum in Prienensi omissae essent quia earum argumentum in concilii provincialis decreto rediret.

17 Perfrequens, ut omnino illa aetate, etiam in hoc titulo est η pro εί ante vocales in substantivis feminini generis ut [Greek] (v. 21. 24. 26. 44. 46), in adjectivis eorumque neutris substantive usurpatis ([Greek] 33. [Greek] 61. [Greek] 67). Sed in [Greek]; hoc rarius esse quam alibi consentaneum est, quia ipsa origo ad nomen [Greek] rediens ea orthographia aliquatenus obscuratur. Vs. 4 [Greek] est, v. 4 5 discrepant apographa.

18 ΕΚΕΙΝΗ A [Greek] P.

19 [Greek] A, [Greek] P. Item proximo versu [Greek] A, [Greek] P.

20 Praepositionem in lapide propter terminationem vocabuli proximi errore omissam reposuerunt M. et W.

21 Si articulus hic genuinus esset, statuendum esse in Augusteo Pergamenorum certam quandam pilam eius modi decretis honorificis insculpendis deslinatam fuisse observat Wilamowitz; ac sane articulum aliter defendi non licere verum est. Sed illa [Greek]—[Greek] non possunt non de stela intellegi quae tum demum cum inscripta sit in templo collocetur. Quare articulus perperam, fortasse pro praepositione ΕΝ (not. 20), incisus videtur.

22 I.e. et Graece et Latine; cf. not. !. Mommsenus cum hoc [Greek]; perbene confert locutionem grammatici eruditionis (vel imtitutionis) utritisque Cod. Theod. XI, 16, 15. 18. Sed iam hujus tituli aetate id dicendi genus usitatum fuisse probat illud Horatii Carm. III, 8, 5 docte sermones utriusque linguae.

23 In lapide Prienensi hunc epistulae finem ipsum excipit initium decreti Asianorum (II). Sed Apameae his interiectum est aliud documentum item utraque lingua compositum. Ex Latinis nihil exstat nisi haec: ----- | nonnus XXX, decumtes | XXXI, undecumus XXX, | duodecumus XXXI | interkalaris interpo|netur. Graecae interpretationis aetatem tulerunt relliquiae decem versuum, sed octo priorum tam exiguae et obscurae, ut nihil certi dispiciatur; duo postremi sic se habent [Greek]. Quae frustula argumento quidem respondere illls guae in decreto concilli provincialis legantur v. 70. 71, 77 apparet, neque alia videtur causa, cur in lapide Prienensi omnino hoc totum documentum omitteretur; fuit sine dubio epistulae Paulli proconsulis appendix quae accuratiorem novorum fastorum descriptionem, quam in ipsa epistula desideramus (not. 16), contineret. De numero dierum errorem commissum, cum undecimo Gorpiaeo triginta, duodecimo Hyperberetaeo triginta unus tribuerentur, Mommsenus fragmento A eruto iam perspexerat, id quod comprobatur lapide P invento (v. 70. 71 [Greek]; X ). Unum quod in illo frustulo Graeco Apamensi sit, neque vero in decreto Asianorum redeat, enuntiatum [Greek] est, quo Mommsenus conicit eorum computationem, qui diem intercalarium cum proximo unum duodequadraginta horarum diem efficere statuerint, reici.

24 Concilium provinciale, quod plerumque breviter to [Greek]; dicitur, tamen proprie et accnrate Graecoram qui in illa provincia habitarent appellatum esse huius titali sermo luculentissime demonstrat. Etenim in ipsorum decretoram formalis coastanter additnr nationis Graecae nomen ([Greek] v 30. 34. 78. [Greek] 49. 50), cum in qualibet alia eias meotioae una provinciae appellatio ponatur ([Greek]; v. 61. 63. 66. 67. 81. i[Greek] v. 16. 17. [Greek] v. 44. [Greek] v. 59). Quae observatio lacalentissime confirmatar aliis saecoloram primi et secundi p. Chr. n. titalorum testimoniis. Formulam [Greek] habes n. 470, 9, itemque epistulae ad concilium provinciae Asiae missae praescribitur n. 507, 3 [Greek]. Quod contra [Greek] est 471, 13. 14, [Greek] 490, 41. In decreto concilii provincialis C. I. G. 3487, 40 sqq. legitur [Greek], v. 28. 29 [Greek], sed v. 25—27 [Greek]. Cf. etiam Inscr. Gr. ad res Rom pert III p. 214 n. 603, 45 [Greek]—[Greek], ad illam sollennem appellationem referendum videtar, nam Graeci qui in Asia incolunt natio [Greek] sunt, omnes Asiani non item.

25 [Greek] A, cum P hic [Greek] exhibent. Ac de vocali ε ante α inserta res obscurissima est, siquidem haec scripturae proprietas nusqoam alibi redit. De primae syllabae vocali certins est iudicium; nomen barbarum diphthongum et habuisse consensu nummorum Eckhel D. N. III p.128. 442 , et tituiorum (n.502,4. 504,3. 303,3. 507,4, probatur, qaibuscam 25 inter scriptores faciuot Ptolemaeus Geogr. IV, 2, 4 7 p. 828, 3 [Greek] et Herodianus apud Steph. Byz. s. [Greek]. Neqae vero forma [Greek], quae praeterea in litteris (Strabo XII, 8, 4 2 p. 576 Cas. Steph. Byz. [Greek] Hierocles Synecd. 668, S. ac perraro etiam in inscriptionibus [Greek]; Arch.-epigr. Mitth. aus Oesterreich VIII 4884 p. 24 n. 62 invenitur, ad fortuitam errorem referendaest, sed eam cohaerere cimi affectatione originis Graecae apparet ex Pausan. X, 31, 3: [Greek]. Similiter Cibyratas videmus sibi originem Laconicam affinxisse [n. 497, 2}. Cui rei mnltum tributam esse, quia concilium provinciale Graecae nationis esse existimabatur not. 24; sponte patet. Quare hominem qai hoc decretam rogaret coasulto ethnici forma Graecae originis admonente asum esse, quam lapicida Prienensis religiose conservaret, Apameosis vero cum ea quae ipsi fanuliaris esset commutaret, veri simillimom existimo. Ceterum Aezani oppidum fuerunt Phrygiae quae Epictetos appellabatur (cf. n. 445). Huius Apollonii sacerdotis filius videtur Menophilus n. 475, 2. Cf. ibi not. 3.

26 In restituendis versibus mutiiis 32—51 Wilamowitzium secutus sum praeter paucos locos, quos singillatim indicabo.

27 Cum [Greek] de eis qui laetitiam futuram spe et cogitatione praecepissent dici rectissima iudicaiet Wilamowitzius, supplementum sermonis usui accommodatum se nullum videre professus est; ne ipse quidem video, nam verbi [Greek], quod sane inferiore aetate in superandi notionem abiit (cf. n. 33), utique medium, non activum scribi debuerat.

28 Summa cum veri similitudine hic Mommsenus deprehendere sibi visus est eum Tullum, cui Propertius et universum librura primum sacrum esse voluit et ad quem praeterea singillatira elegias eius libri sextam et quartamdecimam scripsit. Etenim eum ex poetae carminibus sub idem fere tempus cum hoc decreto compositis apparere in Asiara abiisse comitem, ut quidera videretur, praesidis provinciae (I, 6, 14); ipsum administrationi provinciae interfuisse (I, 6, 20 et vetera oblitis iura refer sociis) et plures annos in Asia remansisse (IV, 22, 1 frigida tam multos placuit tibi Cyxicus annos). Etsi Propertius ubique nudo cognomine Tullus utitur, taraen quia amicum suum patruura habuisse consulem indicat I, 6, 19, pridem perspectum est hunc L. Volcaciura Tullura consulem ordinariura anni 32 a. Chr. n. (Prosopogr. irap. Rora. III p. 474 n. 625) esse. lam omnia tara accurate congruunt, ut vix quisquam post Mommseni disputationem L. Volcacium Tullum tituli ab illo Propertiano distinguere audeat. Sed quid ante nomen scriptum fuerit, admodura difficile est diiudicatu. Wil. fere [[Greek]] aut aliam similem temporis definitionem fuisse conicit. At is cum Moraraseno [Greek] ad ipsum Tullum refert, quod certis de causis (not. 29) mihi non probatur. Iramo tempus decreti definiri existirao primum magistratus Romani nomine, deinde scribae concilii Graecorura Asianorum. At quale magistratus vocabulum fuerit plane ambiguus haereo. Utique [Greek] non fuit. Nam si quis non Propertii Tullum sed eius patruum intellegat, ut hic ipse fuerit magistratus quocura ille coraes et adiutor in provinciam iret, obstabit intervallum plus quam viginti annorum inter consulatum et administrationem Asiae ingens et Augusti principatu prorsus incredibile. Natu minorem vero Tulium tum non proconsulem in illam provinciam iisse apparet ex Propertii carrainibus. Sed id nescio an fieri potuerit ut per aliquantum temporis ante Paulli Fabii adventum ille legatus proconsulis vice fungeretur. Quae res tamen quonam vocabulo Graeco enuntiata fuerit latet.

29 Cur ante [Greek]; distinguere mallem, quam cum Mommseno et Wilamowitzio post hoc participium, duae fuerunt causae. Primum enim legatum vel adiutorem proconsulis scribae concilii Graecorum Asianorum fticio fungi permirum ipsi Mommseno visum est, neque eis quae ad eam exn explicandam attulit argumentis ipse magnopere confisus esse videtur. Deinde vero cum hoc officio Graecum homioem functum esse omnium maxime probabile sit, ipsum vero participium in iapide excipiatur initio nominis inter Graecos inferioris aetatis baud infrequentis, cur haec divellamus? Post nomen [Greek] ethnicum intercidisse videtur.

30 ΠΑΡΕ ... ΕΝΤΙ Supplevit et emendavit Wilamowitz ex v. 60.

31 Cf. H. Dessau Prosopographia imp. Rom. II p. 48 n. 38. Consul ordinarius fuit cum Q. Aelio Tuberone a. 11 a. Chr. Proconsulatum Asiae praeter hanc tabulam testantur nummi Hierapolis Phrygiae (Waddington Fastes des provinces Asiatiques de Tempire Romain n. 59) et titulus Pergamenus n. 465. De eius tempore Wadd. sic ratiocinatur: Pro eius aetatis consuetudioe quinquennio post consulatum, i.e. 6 a. Chr. ri. Fabium ad Asiae proconsulatum pervenire debuisse. Sed familiaribus principis, inter quos eum fuisse constat, haud raro id datum esse, ut aliquot annis ante ad hoc summum honorum senatoriorum fastigium pervenirent. Neque certe lulli Antonii, qui proximo post illum anno 1 a. Chr. consul et a. 4 a. Chr., ut quidem videretur, proconsui Asiae fuisset (Ioseph. Ant. XVI, 1 72) a. 2 a. Chr. vero perusset, administrationem Asianam illa Fabii priorem, sed posteriorem fnisse. Accoratiora docent quae infra de fastorum ordine dicuntur, quibus probabile ac paene certum fit, Fabium biennio post coosulatum, a. 9 a. Chr... Asiam proconsulari imperio tenuisse.

32 Ambigi potest utrum ΕΥΕ an ΕΥΗ an ΕΥΚ in lapide sit. Aut hoc nomen aut proximum [Greek] melius abesse observat Wilamowitz.

33 Supplevit Wilamowitz, qui tamen ΜΕΝΠΟ male exscriptum et [Greek] potius in lapide esse suspicatur. Utique si [Greek] verum est, is qui decretum conscripsit pergere in animo habebat [Greek], sed deinde ab instituto orationis cursu paullulum deflexit.

34 Cf. not. 24.

35 I.e. in litteris negotiorum publicorum et privatorum ([Greek], cf. n. 56 41) una ascribere.

36 Nominis novi eandem formam habent tituli haud pauci. Bull. corr. Hell. XI (1887) p. 29 n. 42, 5 (Laginis Cariae) [Greek], Inscr. in the British Museum II p. 93 n. CCCVI f, 1 (Calymnae) [Greek]. C. I. G. 2842, 44 (Aphrodisiade Cariae) [Greek]. Lebas-Waddington Inscr. III, 1535, 1 (ex Lydia Smyrnam delatus lapis) [Greek]. Quod in hemerologio Florentino primus 'Asianorum' mensis Katodpto; appellatur, ea re nihil probatur, quandoquidem illi fasti Asiani in reliquis mensium nominibus plane discrepant ab ordine anni provinciali, quem hic habemus. Re vera derivatio illa in -[Greek]; et -[Greek]; in aliis quidem fastis usitata fuit, veluti Cypriorum (Ideler Chron. I p. 427), et maxime Aegyptiorum, ubi postremi mensis Mesore vel Hyperberetaei locum Katoapeto; tenet, sed nusquam in provincia Asia. De antiquo nomine Aio; etiam post Augusti tempora conservato v. not. 43. Illam vero nominis mutationem iam ante hoc de totorum fastorum ordine novo instituendo decretum factam esse ipsa tituli verba docent.

37 Una cum aede Augusti dedicata (cf. not. 38) etiam hi ludi haberi coepti sunt.

38 Pergami. Cf. quae adnotata sunt n. 4565.

39 Cf. n. 444 16.

40 Vocabulum [Greek]; inde a Ciceronis aetate aliquotiens (Cic. ad. Fam. XIII, 56, 1: [Greek] et [Greek]; pecuniam Cluvio debent: dixerat mihi Euthydemus, cum Ephesi essem, se euraturum, ut ecdiei Mylasii Romam mitterentur; id factum non est: legatos audio missos esse, sed malo ecdicos, ut aliquid confiei possit; quare peto a te, ut et eos et [Greek]; iubeas ecdicos Romam mittere. Plin. epist. X, 4 11, 1: ecdieus, domine, Amisenonim eiriiatis petebat apud me a lulio Pisone denariorum circiter quadraginta milia) usurpatur de hominibus qui civitatiscuiuspiam causas defendunt. Qui frequentius quidem auvotxot appeiiari solent; (O. Seeck ap. Pauly-Wissowa IV, 2 p. 2365), neque vero ante quartum p. Chr. n. saeculum hic ordinarius magistratus factus est, sed singiilatim cuiusque litis causa eiusmodi defensor vel actor vel advocatus constitui soiebat. At aliter in communibus provinciarum conciliis rem se habuisse hic titulus prodit, ex quo discimus iam Augusti aetate quotannis a communi Asiae ecdicos creari consuevisse.

41 Quod hic in principalibus conventuum urbibus erigi iuberetur tabula cum epistula proconsulis et decreto Asianorum, inde Mommsenus magna certe cum probabilitate collegit, oppida ubi hae relliquiae inventae essent, Apameam, Dorylaium, Eumeniam, Prienen, coaventus habuisse, etsi sane non praefracte negare liceret, etiam aliis locis exempla tituli proposita fuisse. Testimonium de conventibus illic habitis sane nuliumdum exstare nisi de Apamea, de qua cf. Cic. ad fam. XV, 4, 2. Plin. Nat. hist. V, 106: tertius (conventus) Apameam vadit ante appellatam Celaenas, dein Ciboton.

42 Hic adiunguntur accuratiora praecepta de anni ordine, quae in Prienensi exemplari ex litteris supra (not. 16) omissis proconsulis, quae appendicis loco eius epistulae annexae erant, repetebantur. Vice versa Eumeniense exemplum hic finiebatur, quia illa ut Apamense superiore loco inseruerat. Wil.

43 Conservantur ordo et nomina mensium ex fastis lunisolaribus Macedonum, sed numerus dierum ita constituitur ut unusquisque mensis ab eo die qui est a. d. VIIII mensis Iuliani incipiat. Memorabile est, hos fastos etiam in Hemerologio Florentino haberi, sed illic non Asiae provinciae, sed Ephesiis tribui. Cf. Ideler Chronol. I p. 419. Pauca in singulorum mensium numeris dierum discrepant, nomina vero illic omnia Macedonica sunt, ita ut primus non [Greek], sed [Greek] appelletur. Quae res tamen neutiquam impedit, quominus illic fastos provinciales. Asiae agnoscamus, nam etiam titulorum testimoniis constat, nequaquam plane expulsum esse antiquum nomen nova appellatione. At quos hemerologium ipsum Asianorum menses recenset (Ideler I p. 414) ex eis ne unusquidem plane idem, duo modo similes ([Greek]; et [Greek]) recurrunt in veris fastis provinciae Asiae, reliqui ([Greek]), [Greek] ab illis alienissimi sunt; quorum de fide et origine quid statuendum sit non video.

44 Hemerologium hic [Greek]; habet, quae est constans ceteroqui in fastis Macedonicis nominis forma. At cum decreto mirum in modum convenit titulo Ephesio SyII.2 636, 38 [Greek]. v. 48 sqq. [Greek]. Sane [Greek] ad Ephesios refertur, quem populum Ionicum antiquitus nominis forma in [Greek] cadente usum esse sponte patet. At titulus cum fere sesquisaeculo post Fabii proconsulatum scriptus sit, apparet non illum antiquum anni ordinem respici, sed fastos provinciae Romanae. Sed in his ipsis quod paullulum inflexa est Macedonica nominis terminatio ad morem sermonis lonici, id honori civitatis Ephesiorum et reverentiae Dianae Ephesiae, a qua mensis nomen habebat, tributum existimo.

45 De aspiratione cf. not. 39. Ab anno intercalario novum fastorum ordinem incipere hinc collegit Wilamowitzius, quia nihil aliud nisi 'hoc anno' significare possent verba. Quio eisdem annis intercalatum sit atque in fastis Romanorum, tota ratio huius instituti dubitari non sinit. Iam propter errorem, de quo dicetur not. 30, hic non potest esse posterior quam 9 a. Chr. n. Sed ne prior quidem esse potest, quia 11 a. Chr. n. annus consulatus Paulli Fabii Maximi est, post quem demum proconsulatum Asiae nactus est.

46 Subaudiendum videtur [Greek]. Nam intercalationis ipsius notionem nomine substantivo [Greek] exprimi credibile non est, et recte dies qui intercalatur in causa esse dicitur, cur totus mensis triginta duorum dierum numerum colligat.

47 Peritius quartus est mensis anni lunisolaris Macedonici ab aequinoctio auctumnali incipientis, respondens Atheniensium Gamelioni, fastorum lulianorum fere lanuario. Cum hic videamus quintum decimum eius diem illo anno in a. d. VIIII calendas Februarias incidere, sequitur ut mensis initium ceperit a decimo die mensis lanuarii fastorum lulianorum.

48 Paullo minus accurate pro [Greek]; dicitur [Greek]. Quod v. 50 scriptum est [Greek], id omnino recte se habet; nam cum [Greek] sit 'primum esse', non minus accurate dicitur [Greek]. Manifesto vero hinc ille nominis [Greek] usus ortus est.

49 Diem qui intercalaretur reliquis omnibus eius mensis praemissum esse, ideoque Latino calendarum intercalariarum nomine significatum observat Mommsen.

50 Hoc redit in Paulii Fabii proconsulis litteris epistulae annexis de anni ordine (v. not. 23), ubi sic se habet: [Greek] [[Greek]---] | [Greek]. Non fugit Mommsenum, hic eam intercalandi ralionem indicari, quae foeda pontificnm inscitia per aliquot decennia obtinuisset. Nempe cum Caesar iossisset quarto quoque anno intercalari, ambiguitas huius dicendi generis homines fefellit, ut non post peractum quartum annum, sed ipso incipiente, i.e. post triennium intercalarent. Quem errorem per sex et triginta annos permansisse, quibus annis intercalati sint dies duodecim cum intercalari debuerint novem, deinde vero Augustum errorem sero deprehensum correxisse refert Macrobius Sat. I, H. Cf. etiam Plin. N. H. XVIII, 2n. Sueton. Aug. 31, Solin. 1,46. 47. Ideler Chronologie II p. 131 sqq. Mommsen Rom. Chronologie p. 288 sqq. Cum igitur primus annns Iulianas 45 a. Chr. n. intercalaris fuisset, deinde perperam annis 48, 39, 36, 33, 30, 27, 24, 21, 18, 43, 13, 9 a. Chr. intercalatum esse ex numeris qui apud Solinum et Macrobium sunt apparet. Tum vero Augastus, qui anno 13 a. Chr. n. in locum M. Aemilii Lepidi defuncti pontifex maximus factus erat, errore deprehenso annis a. Chr., 1 a. Chr., 4 p. Chr. intercalari vetuit, ut tandem ab anno 8 p. Chr. legitimus intercalationum ordo, qualem Caesar voluerat, per omnia deinceps saecula decurreret. Sed errorem ab Augusto anno 8 a. Chr. n. patefactum brevi ab illius familiari Paullo Fabio in ordinandis fastis Asianis iterum commissum esse perquam improbabile est. Quare anno 9 a. Chr. recentius decretum non esse patet; car ne antiqaius quidem esse possit, exposui not. 31.

51 Cf. not. 24.

52 Cf. not. 25.

53 ΑΣΙΑ.

54 Nomen hac vel simili vi in Graecis litteris quod sciam sine exemplo est. Nempe quin recte Mommsenus idem fere ac Latinum renuntiatio significare stataerit, conexus sententiae dubitari non patitur. Etenim in legibus civitatium qaarundam cautam erat, at certus dierom nameras inter renuntiationem magistratus creati et initium officii intercederet. Quae res impedimento esse poterat quominus magistratns ex superiore concilii provincialis decreto primo anni civilis die inirent, si quando comitia magistratuum ([Greek]) sero habita erant. Quare hic interdicitar ne illa minus qaam quinquaginta diebus ante finem anni civilis fiant.

55 Legem Comeliam vix aliam esse posse atque illam Sullae, cuias Cicero in epistulis aliqaotiens mentionem faceret, observavit Mommsen. Nam eam non modo de praesidum provinciarum rebus praecepisse (ad Fam. I, 9, 25: se, quoniam et, senatus eonsullo provinciam haberet, lege Comelia imperium habiturum, quoad m urbem iniroisset. III, 6, 3 iriginta diebm, qui ubi ad decedendum lege, ut opinor, Comella constituti essent. ibid. § 6 et, ut habere rationem jwsm. quo loco me salva lege Comella convenias, ego in provinciam veni pridie Kalendas Sextiles), sed etiam ad civitates provinciales earumque administrationem spectasse apparere ex ep. ad Fam, III, 10,6: ad me adire quosdam memini—qni dieerent nimis magnos sumptus legatis (sc. a civitatibus provinciae) decerni quibus ego non tam imperavi quam censtii sumptus legatis quam maxime ad legem Corneliam decernendos. Ad eandem legem sine dubio spectare fragmentum decreti Thyatireni Mitth. des arch. Inst. in Athen XXIV 1899 p. 234 n. 74, 5: [Greek], esset, ut quidem videretur, inde colllgi in illa lege generatim definitum fuisse quae iura autonomia civitatium continerentur quibusque terminis ea circurascriberetur. Quo minus mirandum esse, quod etiam de magistratuum creatione, renuntiatione, introitu certa praecepta illic fuissent. Quae hic neutiquam abrogari, ac tamen in universum intervallum quinquaginta dierum in posterum sanciri, sane magnam difficultatem habet, quam expedire non possumus, quia quid de hoc argumento in lege scriptum fuerit omnino ignoramus.


THE GREEK TEXT

(Text, transliteration and translation, of a few lines only)

Εδοξεν τοις επι της Ασιας Ελλησιν, γνωμη του αρχιερεως Απολλωνιου του Μηνοφιλου Αζανιτου· Επειδη η παντα διαταξασα του βιου ημων προνοια σπουδην εισενενκαμενη και φιλοτιμιαν το τεληοτατον τω βιω διεκοσμησεν ενενκαμενη τον Σεβαστον, ον εις ευεργεσιαν ανθρωπων επληρωσεν αρετης, ωσπερ ημειν και τοις μεθ ημας σωτηρα πεμψασα τον παυσοντα μεν πολεμον, κοσμησοντα δε παντα, επιφανεις δε ο Καισαρ τας ελπιδας των προλαβοντων ευανγελια παντων υπερεθηκεν, ου μονον τους προ αυτου γεγονοτας ευεργετας υπερβαλομενος, αλλ ουδ εν τοις εσομενοις ελπιδα υπολιπων υπερβολης, ηρξεν δε τω κοσμω των δι αυτον ευανγελιων η γενεθλιος ημερα του θεου· της δε Ασιας εψηφισμενης εν Σμυρνη. Edoxen tois epi tês Asias | Ellêsin, gnômêi tou archiereôs Apollôniou tou Mênophilou Azanitou: | epe[idê hê panta] diataxasa tou biou hêmôn pronoia spoudêneisen [enka|m]enê kai philotimian to telêotaton tôi biôi diekosmê[sen] | enenkamenê ton Sebaston, hon eis euergesian anthrô[pôn] eplêrôsen aretês, [hô]sper hêmein kai tois meth hê[mas sôtêra pempsasa]| ton pausonta men polemon, kosmêsonta [de panta, phaneis de]| ho Kaisar tas elpidas tôn prolabontôn [euangelia pantôn huper]|ethêken, ou monon tous pro autou gegonot[as euergetas huperba]|lomenos, all oud en tois esomenois elpid[a hupolipôn huperbolês,]| êrxen de tôi kosmôi tôn di auton euangeli[ôn hê genethlios]| tou theou, tês de Asias epsêphismemês en Smurnêi... It seemed good to the Greeks of Asia, in the opinion of the high priest Apollonius of Menophilus Azanitus: ‘Since Providence, which has ordered all things and is deeply interested in our life, has set in most perfect order by giving us Augustus, whom she filled with virtue that he might benefit humankind, sending him as a saviour, both for us and for our descendants, that he might end war and arrange all things, and since he, Caesar, by his appearance (excelled even our anticipations), surpassing all previous benefactors, and not even leaving to posterity any hope of surpassing what he has done, and since the birthday of the god Augustus was the beginning of the good tidings for the world that came by reason of him which Asia resolved in Smyrna.

Evans remarks on the above: "Comparison of Mark's incipit with this part of the inscription seems fully warranted. First, there is reference to good news, or 'gospel.' In Mark the word appears in the singular (εὐαγέλλιον), while in the inscription it appears in the more conventional plural (εὐαγέλλια). Second, there is reference to the beginning of this good news. In Mark the nominal form is employed (αρχη), while in the inscription the verbal form is employed (αρχείν). Third, this good news is brought about by a divine agent. In Mark this agent is 'Jesus the Anointed,' υίος θεου (either in the incipit, or as declared elsewhere in the Markan Gospel), while in the inscription the agent is 'Augustus,' the 'savior' and 'benefactor,' θεος. In many other inscriptions and papyri Augustus is referred to as υίος θεου, or divi filius (IGR 1.901; 4.309, 315; ILS 107, 113; PRyl 601; POslo 26; etc.). The use of the word 'appearance' (επιφανειν), moreover, only enhances the divine element. .... The calendrical inscription from Priene, mentioned above, describes the birthday of Augustus 'the beginning of the good news for the world.' Plutarch says that 'a number of people sailed for Lesbos, wishing to announce to Cornelia the good news [εὐαγέλλιον or εὐαγέλλιξεσθαί] that the war was over' (Pomp. 66.3). Jews also understood and employed this terminology. When word spread of Vespasian's accession to the throne, 'every city celebrated the good news [εὐαγέλλια] and offered sacrifices on his behalf' (Josephus, J.W. 4.10.6 §618). Josephus later relates: 'On reaching Alexandria Vespasian was greeted by the good news [εὐαγέλλια] from Rome and by embassies of congratulation from every quarter of the world, now his own ... The whole empire being now secured and the Roman state saved [σώξείν] beyond expectation, Vespasian turned his thoughts to what remained in Judaea' (J.W. 4.11.5 §656-657).

"When the Markan evangelist begins his Gospel with the words that echo an important element of the Roman imperial cult, he is making the claim that the good news of Jesus Christ is the genuine article. Neither Julius Caesar nor any one of his descendants can rightly be regarded as the 'son of God'; only Jesus the Messiah." (Mark’s Incipit and the Priene Calendar Inscription: From Jewish Gospel to Greco-Roman Gospel, Trinity Western University, thesis, n.d.)

Evans (obviously a Christian himself) goes on to cite other parallels in the texts of classical writers that coincide with the semantics of the inscription and their coincidence with the gospel of Mark. Yet this does not prove anything other than the appropriation of messianic prophecy by the christolaters who saw Christ as the embodiment of this prophecy, not does it prove that Christ actually existed. What the inscription does prove, however, is that these sentiments were already in place long before Christ's supposed appearance. If anything, if Augustus can be deemed a god, when in actuality he was nothing but a common man (albeit an emperor), then why can't a simple man like Jesus also be thought of as a god. That does not necessarily make him one, but rather how he was viewed as one by his own followers.

Lastly, a writer by the name of J. Rouffiac (in his Caractères du Grec, p. 72 passim), makes the remark of how easy it would be for a Christian to 'touch up' this text and substitute the name of Christ, thereby replacing the name of Augustus with Christ's name. But this is exactly what the Christians have been doing for centuries; over-writing, substituting, interpolating, etc., every text they could get hold of to make out that not only did Christ come into this world to redeem mankind, but his destiny was foreshadowed in the messianic prophecy of earlier ages. As Massey has proved elsewhere, there was no physical, historical Christ, only a spiritual one for it was based on the original type which has its validity in the realm of the mythos, and in the mythos only. It is the Christians and early believers of Christ who have appropriated the original type and substituted it for a human type.

I append here a longer version of the above (from Sherk):

Lines 30-34: ἔδοξεν τοῖς ἐπὶ τῆς Ἀσίας Ἕλλησιν, γνώμῃ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως Ἀπολλωνίου τοῦ Μηνοφίλου Ἀζανίτου·ἐπε[ιδὴ ἡ θείως] διατάξασα τὸν βίον ἡμῶν πρόνοια σπουδὴν εἰσεν[ενκα]-[μ]ένη καὶ φιλοτιμίαν τὸ τεληότατον τῶι βίωι διεκόσμη[σεν ἀγαθὸν] ἐνενκαμένη τὸν Σεβαστόν, ὃν εἰς εὐεργεσίαν ἀνθρώ[πων] ἐπλή-
Lines 35-39: ρωσεν ἀρετῆς, <ὥ>σπερ ἡμεῖν καὶ τοῖς μεθ’ ἡ[μᾶς σωτῆρα χαρισαμένη] τὸν παύσαντα μὲν πόλεμον, κοσμήσοντα [δὲ εἰρήνην, ἐπιφανεὶς δὲ] ὁ Καῖσαρ τὰς ἐλπίδας τῶν προλαβόντων [εὐανγέλια πάντων ὑπερ]- έθηκεν, οὐ μόνον τοὺς πρὸ αὐτοῦ γεγονότ[ας εὐεργέτας ὑπερβα- λόμενος, ἀλλ’ οὐδ’ ἐν τοῖς ἐσομένοις ἐλπίδ[α ὑπολιπὼν ὑπερβολῆς,]
Lines 40-44: ἤρξεν δὲ τῶι κόσμωι τῶν δι’ αὐτὸν εὐανγελί[ων ἡ γενέθλιος ἡμέ]ρα τοῦ θεοῦ, τῆς δὲ Ἀσίας ἐψηφισμένης ἐν Σμύρνῃ [ἐπὶ ἀνθυ]π̣άτου Λευκίου Οὐολκακίου Τύλλου, γραμματεύοντος Παπ[ίωνος Διοσιεριτοῦ] τῶι μεγίστας γ’ εἰς τὸν θεὸν καθευρόντι τειμὰς εἶναι στέφανον, Παῦλλος Φάβιος Μάξιμος ὁ ἀνθύπατος τῆς ἐπαρχήας εὐεργέτης
Lines 45-49: ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκείνου δεξιᾶς καὶ [γ]νώμης ἀπεσταλμένος ξὺν τοῖς ἄλλοις οἷς εὐεργέτησεν τὴν ἐπαρχήαν, ὧν εὐεργεσιῶν τὰ μεγέθη λόγος εἰπεῖν οὐδεὶς ἂν ἐφίκοιτο, καὶ τὸ μέχρι νῦν ἀγνοηθὲν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑλλή- νων εἰς τὴν τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ τειμὴν εὕρετο, τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκείνου γενέ- σεως ἄρχειν τῷ βίῳ τὸν χρόνον· διὸ τύχῃ ἀγαθῇ καὶ ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ δεδό-
Lines 50-54: χθαι τοῖς ἐπὶ τῆς Ἀσίας Ἕλλησι, ἄρχειν τὴν νέαν νουμηνίαν πάσα[ις] ταῖς πόλεσιν τῇ πρὸ ἐννέα καλανδῶν Ὀκτωβρίων, ἥτις ἐστὶν γενέ- θλιος ἡμέρα τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ. ὅπως δὲ ἀεὶ ἡ {τε} ἡμέρα στοιχῇ καθ’ ἑκάσ-την πόλιν, συνχρηματίζειν τῇ Ῥωμαϊκῇ καὶ τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ἡμέραν.
Lines 55-58: ἄγεσθαι δὲ τὸν πρῶτον μῆνα Καίσαρα, καθὰ καὶ προεψήφισται, ἀρχόμε - νον ἀπὸ πρὸ ἐννέα μὲν καλανδῶν Ὀκτωβρίων, γενεθλίου δὲ ἡμέρας Καίσαρος, τὸν δὲ ἐψηφισμένον στέφανον τῷ τὰς μεγίστας εὑρόντι τειμὰς ὑπὲρ Καίσαρος δεδόσθαι Μαξίμωι τῶι ἀνθυπάτωι, ὃν καὶ ἀεὶ ἀναγορεύεσθαι ἐν τῷ γυμ[νι]κῷ ἀγῶνι τῶι ἐν Περγάμωι τῶν Ῥω[μα]ίων
Line 59: Σεβαστῶν, ὅτι στεφανοῖ [ἡ Ἀσ]ία Παῦλον Φάβιον Μάξιμον εὐ[σεβ]έ[σ]-
Lines 60-61: τατα παρευρόντα τὰς εἰς Καίσαρα τειμάς. ὡσαύτως δὲ ἀνα[γορεύ]εσ - θαι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀγομένοις κατὰ πόλιν ἀγῶσιν τῶν Καισαρήων.
Lines 62-64: ἀναγραφῆναι δὲ τὸ δελτογράφημα τοῦ ἀνθυπάτου καὶ τὸ ψήφισμα τῆς Ἀσίας ἐν στήλῃ λευκολίθωι, ἣν καὶ τεθῆναι ἐν τῶι τῆς Ῥώμης καὶ τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ τεμένει. προνοῆσαι δὲ καὶ τοὺς καθ’ ἕτος ἐκδίκους ὅπως
Lines 65-69: ἐν ταῖς ἀφηγουμέναις τῶν διοικήσεων πόλεσιν ἐν στήλαις λευ- κολίθοις ἐνχαραχθῇ τό τε δελτογράφημα τοῦ Μαξίμου καὶ τὸ τῆς Ἀσίας ψήφισμα, αὗταί τε αἱ στῆλαι τεθῶσιν ἐν τοῖς Καισαρήοις. ἀχθήσονται οἱ μῆνες κατὰ τάδε. Καῖσαρ ἡμερῶν λαʹ, Ἀπελλαῖος ἡμερῶν λʹ, Αὐδναῖος ἡμερῶν λαʹ, Περίτιος ἡμερῶν λαʹ, Δύστρος κηʹ, Ξανδικός λαʹ,
Lines 70-74: Ἀρτεμισιὼν ἡμερῶν λʹ, Δαίσιος λαʹ, Πάνημος λʹ, Λῶος λαʹ, Γορπιαῖος λαʹ, Ὑπερβερεταῖος λʹ· ὁμοῦ ἡμέραι τξεʹ. ἐφ’ ἕτος δὲ διὰ τὴν ἰντερκαλάριον ὁ Ξανδικὸς ἀχθήσεται ἡμερῶν λβʹ. ἵνα δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν στοιχήσωσιν οἱ μῆνες καὶ αἱ ἡμέραι, ὁ μὲν νῦν ἐνεστὼς Περίτιος μὴν ἀχθήσεται μέχρι τῆς ιδʹ, τῇ δὲ πρὸ ἐννέα καλανδῶν Φεβρουαρίων ἄξομεν νουμηνίαν μηνὸς
Lines 75-77: Δύστρου, καὶ καθ’ ἕκαστον μῆνα ἀρχὴ{ι} ἔσται τῆς νουμηνίας ἡ πρὸ ἐννέα καλανδῶν. ἡ δὲ ἐνβόλιμος ἡμέρα ἔσται πάντοτε τῶν ἰντερκαλαρίων κα- λανδῶν τοῦ Ξανδικοῦ μηνός, δύο ἐτῶν μέσων γεινομένων.

Lastly, I give here another extract on this remarkable document, this time from the learned P. Carus.


Virgil's Prophecy on The Saviour's Birth: The Fourth Eclogue
Edited and translated by Paul Carus

[Extracted from the above work, The Open Court Publishing Co., London, 1918, pp. 14-17.]

The documents to which we refer are inscriptions (recently discovered in several cities of Asia Minor) of which those of Priene, Halicarnassus, Apameia and Emneneia are best preserved and have received most attention. They proclaim the introduction of the Julian calendar reform, which among other things or- [p.15] dains that the birthday of Augustus (September 23) shall be celebrated as the New Year's festival.2

We quote the following remarkable passage from the inscriptions of Priene:

"Since Providence3 which ordains all things in our life, has restored enterprise and love of honor, it has accomplished for [our] life the most perfect thing by producing the August One, whom it has filled with virtue for the welfare of the people; having sent him to us and ours as a Saviour,4 who should stop war and ordain all things. Having appeared, however, the Caesar5 has fulfilled the hope of prophecies, since he [p.16] has not only outdone the benefactors who had come before him, but also has not left to future ones the hope of doing better; the birthday of this God has become through him a beginning of the good tidings."6

The word "Augustus" is originally a title, not a name. It reads in Greek Sebastos7 which means "venerable, majestic, worshipful," and might be translated either "Your Majesty," or "Your Holiness." It applies not only to political but also to religious authority.

The phrase "welfare of the people" reads in Greek euergesia8 which means "well doing, or well working," rendered in the dictionary "good service, a good deed, kindness, bounty, benefit." This word is similar to the Gospel term translated "good-will" in our Bible.9 But the [p.17] former is stronger than the latter; the latter denotes ''well-meaning'' while the former means ''well-doing." A similar expression is that which proclaims Augustus as the source of universal welfare, the last word of which belongs to that group of auspicious designations beginning with the particle eu, meaning "well," but it has no parallel in our Gospel language. It might briefly be translated "bliss."


FOOTNOTES

1 Frederick W. Danker, Benefactor: Epigraphic Study of a Graeco-Roman and New Testament Semantic Field (St. Louis, MO.: Clayton Pub. House, 1982), 217.

2 For details see the essay by Mommsen and Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, 'Die Einftihrung des asiatischen Kalenders,' in Mittheilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts,
Athenische Abtheilung
, 1899, Vol. XXIV, p. 275 ff.

3 πρόνοια.

4 Σωτήρ the same word that is applied to Jesus as a synonym of Christ.

5 The name of Caesar has here become a title.

6 In Greek εὐαγέλλιον the same term which is used in the New Testament, meaning "gospel" or "evangel."

7 τον Σεβαστον.

8 εύεργεσία.

9 εύδοξία.