30AD Soul for souls, Body for bodies, Sin-offering for sinners

A MEDITATION
Do you believe that the physical death of Christ is the payment for the penalty of our sin?
When eating the Supper of the Lord we should remember that:
Jesus offered His blood on the Cross and His body of flesh to God as a sin-offering on our behalf.
The Son of God's blood/soul was offered for the redemption/resurrection of our souls.
The Son of God's flesh/body was offered for the redemption/resurrection of our bodies.
Soul for soul, Blood for blood, Flesh for flesh, Body for body
Sin-offering for sin.
An Englishman's concordance search reveals that "psuche #5590" = "soul" throughout the bulk of the New Testament.
When we employ a Greek Old Testament LXX we can see something very interesting about the use of this word "psuche #5590" = "soul."
Lev 17:10-14 (LXX Greek Old Testament text with NT Strong's #)
10 And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, that eateth any manner of blood (aima #129); I will even set my face against that soul (psuche #5590) that eateth blood (aima #129), and will cut him off from among his people.
11 For the life (psuche #5590) of the flesh (sarkos #4561) is in the blood (aima #129): and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls (psuche #5590): for it is the blood (aima #129) that maketh an atonement for the soul (psuche #5590).
12 Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul (psuche #5590) of you shall eat blood (aima #129), neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood (#129).
13 And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, which hunteth and catcheth any beast or fowl that may be eaten; he shall even pour out the blood (#129) thereof, and cover it with dust.
14 For it is the life (psuche #5590) of all flesh (sarkos #4561); the blood (aima #129) of it is for the life (psyche #5590) thereof: therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the blood (aima #129) of no manner of flesh (sarkos #4561): for the life (psuche #5590) of all flesh (sarkos #4561) is the blood (aima #129) thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.
11 But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;
12 Neither by the blood (aima #129) of goats and calves, but by his own blood (aima #129) he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us.
13 For if the blood (aima #129) of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh (sarkos #4561):
14 How much more shall THE BLOOD (AIMA #129) OF CHRIST, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
15 And for THIS CAUSE he is the mediator of the New Testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.
16 For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be THE DEATH OF THE TESTATOR.
17 FOR A TESTAMENT IS OF FORCE AFTER MEN ARE DEAD: For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth.
18 Whereupon neither the first testament was dedicated without blood (#129).
19 For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood (#129) of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book, and all the people,
20 Saying, This is the blood (aima #129) of the testament which God hath enjoined unto you.
21 Moreover he sprinkled with blood (aima #129) both the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the ministry.
22 And almost all things are by the law purged with blood (aima #129); and without shedding of blood (aima #129) is no remission (afesin #859) of sin.
23 It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.
24 For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:
25 Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood (aima #129) of others;
26 For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
28 So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many
20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood (aima #129) of the everlasting covenant ,
21 Make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
26 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body (soma #4983).
27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;
28 For this is my blood (aima #129) of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission (afesin #859) of sins.
53 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh (sarkos #4561) of the Son of man, and drink his blood (aima #129), ye have no life (zoe #2222) in you.
54 Whoso eateth my flesh (sarkos #4561), and drinketh my blood (aima #129), hath eternal life (zoe #2222); and I WILL RAISE HIM UP AT THE LAST DAY.
55 For my flesh (sarkos #4165)is meat indeed, and my blood (aima #129) is drink indeed.
56 He that eateth my flesh (sarkos #4165), and drinketh my blood (aima #129), dwelleth in me, and I in him.
57 As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.
58 This is that bread which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever.
When eating the Supper of the Lord we should remember that, "The soul of the flesh is in the blood" (Lev 17:11 and Lev 17:14). Jesus offered His blood on the Cross and His body of flesh to God as a sin-offering on our behalf. His blood was offered for the redemption/resurrection of our souls. His body of flesh was offered for the redemption/resurrection of our bodies.
Isa 53:10-12
10 Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul (psuche #5590) an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.
11 He shall see of the travail of his soul (psuche #5590), and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.
12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul (psuche #5590)unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
The Son of God's blood/soul was offered for the redemption/resurrection of our souls. The Son of God's flesh/body was offered for the redemption/resurrection of our bodies. And the Son of God made intercession on our behalf with God, His Father, Who is now our Father.
"The soul of the flesh is in the blood." (Lev 17:11 and Lev 17:14).
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Soul for soul, blood for blood, flesh for flesh, body for body
Sin-offering for sin

Tablet ignites debate on messiah and resurrection

From: http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/07/05/africa/06stone.php

JERUSALEM: A three-foot-tall tablet with 87 lines of Hebrew that scholars believe dates from the decades just before the birth of Jesus is causing a quiet stir in biblical and archaeological circles, especially because it may speak of a messiah who will rise from the dead after three days.

If such a messianic description really is there, it will contribute to a developing re-evaluation of both popular and scholarly views of Jesus, since it suggests that the story of his death and resurrection was not unique but part of a recognized Jewish tradition at the time.

The tablet, probably found near the Dead Sea in Jordan according to some scholars who have studied it, is a rare example of a stone with ink writings from that era — in essence, a Dead Sea Scroll on stone.

It is written, not engraved, across two neat columns, similar to columns in a Torah. But the stone is broken, and some of the text is faded, meaning that much of what it says is open to debate.

Still, its authenticity has so far faced no challenge, so its role in helping to understand the roots of Christianity in the devastating political crisis faced by the Jews of the time seems likely to increase.

Daniel Boyarin, a professor of Talmudic culture at the University of California at Berkeley, said that the stone was part of a growing body of evidence suggesting that Jesus could be best understood through a close reading of the Jewish history of his day.

"Some Christians will find it shocking — a challenge to the uniqueness of their theology — while others will be comforted by the idea of it being a traditional part of Judaism," Boyarin said.

Given the highly charged atmosphere surrounding all Jesus-era artifacts and writings, both in the general public and in the fractured and fiercely competitive scholarly community, as well as the concern over forgery and charlatanism, it will probably be some time before the tablet's contribution is fully assessed. It has been around 60 years since the Dead Sea Scrolls were uncovered, and they continue to generate enormous controversy regarding their authors and meaning.

The scrolls, documents found in the Qumran caves of the West Bank, contain some of the only known surviving copies of biblical writings from before the first century AD In addition to quoting from key books of the Bible, the scrolls describe a variety of practices and beliefs of a Jewish sect at the time of Jesus.

How representative the descriptions are and what they tell us about the era are still strongly debated. For example, a question that arises is whether the authors of the scrolls were members of a monastic sect or in fact mainstream. A conference marking 60 years since the discovery of the scrolls will begin on Sunday at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, where the stone, and the debate over whether it speaks of a resurrected messiah, as one iconoclastic scholar believes, also will be discussed.

Oddly, the stone is not really a new discovery. It was found about a decade ago and bought from a Jordanian antiquities dealer by an Israeli-Swiss collector who kept it in his Zurich home. When an Israeli scholar examined it closely a few years ago and wrote a paper on it last year, interest began to rise. There is now a spate of scholarly articles on the stone, with several due to be published in the coming months.

"I couldn't make much out of it when I got it," said David Jeselsohn, the owner, who is himself an expert in antiquities. "I didn't realize how significant it was until I showed it to Ada Yardeni, who specializes in Hebrew writing, a few years ago. She was overwhelmed. 'You have got a Dead Sea Scroll on stone,' she told me."

Much of the text, a vision of the apocalypse transmitted by the angel Gabriel, draws on the Old Testament, especially the prophets Daniel, Zechariah and Haggai.

Yardeni, who analyzed the stone along with Binyamin Elitzur, is an expert on Hebrew script, especially of the era of King Herod, who died in 4 BC The two of them published a long analysis of the stone more than a year ago in Cathedra, a Hebrew-language quarterly devoted to the history and archaeology of Israel, and said that, based on the shape of the script and the language, the text dated from the late first century BC

A chemical examination by Yuval Goren, a professor of archaeology at Tel Aviv University who specializes in the verification of ancient artifacts, has been submitted to a peer-review journal. He declined to give details of his analysis until publication, but he said that he knew of no reason to doubt the stone's authenticity.

It was in Cathedra that Israel Knohl, an iconoclastic professor of Bible studies at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, first heard of the stone, which Yardeni and Elitzur dubbed "Gabriel's Revelation," also the title of their article. Knohl posited in a book published in 2000 the idea of a suffering messiah before Jesus, using a variety of rabbinic and early apocalyptic literature as well as the Dead Sea Scrolls. But his theory did not shake the world of Christology as he had hoped, partly because he had no textual evidence from before Jesus.

When he read "Gabriel's Revelation," he said, he believed he saw what he needed to solidify his thesis, and he has published his argument in the latest issue of The Journal of Religion.

Knohl is part of a larger scholarly movement that focuses on the political atmosphere in Jesus' day as an important explanation of that era's messianic spirit. As he notes, after the death of Herod, Jewish rebels sought to throw off the yoke of the Rome-supported monarchy, so the rise of a major Jewish independence fighter could take on messianic overtones.

In Knohl's interpretation, the specific messianic figure embodied on the stone could be a man named Simon who was slain by a commander in the Herodian army, according to the first-century historian Josephus. The writers of the stone's passages were probably Simon's followers, Knohl contends.

The slaying of Simon, or any case of the suffering messiah, is seen as a necessary step toward national salvation, he says, pointing to lines 19 through 21 of the tablet — "In three days you will know that evil will be defeated by justice" — and other lines that speak of blood and slaughter as pathways to justice.

To make his case about the importance of the stone, Knohl focuses especially on line 80, which begins clearly with the words "L'shloshet yamin," meaning "in three days." The next word of the line was deemed partially illegible by Yardeni and Elitzur, but Knohl, who is an expert on the language of the Bible and Talmud, says the word is "hayeh," or "live" in the imperative. It has an unusual spelling, but it is one in keeping with the era.

Two more hard-to-read words come later, and Knohl said he believed that he had deciphered them as well, so that the line reads, "In three days you shall live, I, Gabriel, command you."

To whom is the archangel speaking? The next line says "Sar hasarin," or prince of princes. Since the Book of Daniel, one of the primary sources for the Gabriel text, speaks of Gabriel and of "a prince of princes," Knohl contends that the stone's writings are about the death of a leader of the Jews who will be resurrected in three days.

He says further that such a suffering messiah is very different from the traditional Jewish image of the messiah as a triumphal, powerful descendant of King David.

"This should shake our basic view of Christianity," he said as he sat in his office of the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem where he is a senior fellow in addition to being the Yehezkel Kaufman Professor of Biblical Studies at Hebrew University. "Resurrection after three days becomes a motif developed before Jesus, which runs contrary to nearly all scholarship. What happens in the New Testament was adopted by Jesus and his followers based on an earlier messiah story."

Yardeni said she was impressed with the reading and considered it indeed likely that the key illegible word was "hayeh," or "live." Whether that means Simon is the messiah under discussion, she is less sure.

Moshe Bar-Asher, president of the Israeli Academy of Hebrew Language and emeritus professor of Hebrew and Aramaic at the Hebrew University, said he spent a long time studying the text and considered it authentic, dating from no later than the first century BC His 25-page paper on the stone will be published in the coming months.

Regarding Knohl's thesis, Bar-Asher is also respectful but cautious. "There is one problem," he said. "In crucial places of the text there is lack of text. I understand Knohl's tendency to find there keys to the pre-Christian period, but in two to three crucial lines of text there are a lot of missing words."

Moshe Idel, a professor of Jewish thought at Hebrew University who has just published a book on the son of God, said that given the way every tiny fragment from that era yielded scores of articles and books, "Gabriel's Revelation" and Knohl's analysis deserved serious attention. "Here we have a real stone with a real text," he said. "This is truly significant."

Knohl said that it was less important whether Simon was the messiah of the stone than the fact that it strongly suggested that a savior who died and rose after three days was an established concept at the time of Jesus. He notes that in the Gospels, Jesus makes numerous predictions of his suffering and New Testament scholars say such predictions must have been written in by later followers because there was no such idea present in his day.

But there was, he said, and "Gabriel's Revelation" shows it.

"His mission is that he has to be put to death by the Romans to suffer so his blood will be the sign for redemption to come," Knohl said. "This is the sign of the son of Joseph. This is the conscious view of Jesus himself. This gives the Last Supper an absolutely different meaning. To shed blood is not for the sins of people but to bring redemption to Israel."